Category «Antiquities»

The Mongol Invasion of Armenia

The Mongol Invasion of Armenia

After the establishment of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century by Genghis Khan, the nomadic Tatar-Mongolian tribes inhabiting Central Asia undertook invasive campaigns against neighboring and distant countries. After several reconnaissance attacks, the 30,000-strong army of Mongols under the command of Chormagan was split into separate groups in the Mugan Plain. These groups attacked …

The Fortress of Meghri – Syunik, Armenia

The Fortress of Meghri – Syunik, Armenia

The Armenian town of Meghri is known for its old-fashioned hotels, vodka, as well as its wonderful fruits and vegetables, especially Meghri figs and yellow pomegranates. Atop the rocky Mount Meghri in the vicinity of the town are the ruins of the 10th-century fortress of Meghri. The fortress of Meghri was first mentioned in 1083. …

Tigran the Great’s Foreign Policy

Tigran the Great’s Foreign Policy

King Mithridates VI of Pontus, who conflicted with Rome and sought to oust it from Asia Minor, sent ambassadors to Tigran II with a proposal to conclude an alliance. The union with the powerful Kingdom of Pontus, which was enforced by the marriage between Tigran II and Mithridates VI Eupator’s daughter Cleopatra, was beneficial to …

Miraculously Preserved Unique Armenian Manuscripts

Miraculously Preserved

Each manuscript has its own destiny. Just like people. The fate of the most ancient Armenian manuscripts repeats the path of the Armenians themselves: exile, loss, and finding their homeland. This is how the Armenian manuscript heritage is characterized by Doctor of Historical Sciences Gevorg Ter-Vardanyan, head of the Matenadaran manuscript storage. By the will …

Armenia During the Achaemenid Empire

Armenia During the Achaemenid Empire

According to ancient Greek sources, the territory of Armenia under Achaemenid rule was divided into two administrative units (satrapies). For two centuries, Armenia has paid a large tribute with gold and horses to the Achaemenids, which testifies to the country’s economic prosperity. Considering the military power of the Armenian dynasty of Yervandunis (Orontids), the Persian …

The Term “Urartu” Originated From A Linguistic Error

The Term “Urartu”

In the 20th century, many propagandists from history (as I call such historians) questioned the work of Movses Khorenatsi, which no one has considered legendary and unreal in world historiography until the end of the 19th century. I am talking mainly about the first chapter of Khorenatsi’s “History of Armenia” based on the works of …

Armenia in the Mesolithic Period

Armenia in the Mesolithic Period

The Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) lasted for about 5–6 thousand years, from about the 12th to the middle of the 7th millennium BC. During this time period, the modern human has been finally formed. The invention of the bow and arrow greatly facilitated hunting, which in its turn increased the consumption of meat food. The …

Provinces-Gavars of Historical Armenia

Provinces-Gavars of Historical Armenia

In the 4th century BC in the territory of historical Armenia, two administrative-political units were formed, Greater Armenia and Lesser Armenia, whose borders ran along the Western Euphrates River. Greater Armenia included fifteen provinces (nahangs) – Ayrarat, Gugark, Utik, Artsakh, Syunik, Paytakaran, Parskahayk, Vaspurakan, Korchayk, Moghk, Aghdznik, Turuberan, Tsopk (Sophene), Upper Armenia, and Tayk. Each …

The First Kings of Armenia

The First Kings of Armenia

The writings of Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi (5th century) preserved important information about the first Armenian king Paruyr. According to the Armenian tradition, a descendant of Hayk, Paruyr managed to unite the western regions of the Armenian Highlands starting from Lake Van and ending with the Euphrates River. At the end of the 7th century …

Proto-Armenian God Ar

Proto-Armenian God Ar

Ar (Armenian: Ար) is the chief deity of the Proto-Armenian (Aryan) pantheon. He symbolized the power of the sun and combined the features of the forces of nature and spring. The cult of Ar in the Armenian Highlands appeared in the 3rd millennium BC (A. Teryan). However, the rock carvings of the sun and its …

The Union of David Bek With The Shah of Iran Against the Turks

In 1714, David Bek supported Vakhtang VI of Kartli in his struggle against the Lezgins, after which the people of Artsakh recalled David Bek from Georgia. He headed the Artsakh Military Council. David Bek appointed prominent commander Mkhitar a sparapet. Ter-Avetis, Parsadai, Toro, and Karabakh meliks Yegan-Melik Avankhanyan and Avan-Yuz-bashi Babanyan became commanders of military …

Ancient Armenian Coins

Ancient Armenian Coins

It is known from history that during the reign of Seleucid King Antiochus the Great (223-187 BC), Artashes, a prominent Seleucid military leader, was appointed the governor of Armenia and was nominally subservient to the Seleucid king. Because the war with Rome greatly weakened the Seleucid Empire (in particular, in the battle of Magnesia in …

John I Tzimiskes, Byzantine Emperor of Armenian Descent

John I Tzimiskes, Byzantine Emperor

John I Tzimiskes was one of the greatest emperors of Byzantium. John originated from a noble Armenian family (the nickname “Tzimiskes” is derived from Armenian “Chmishkik”, meaning “short stature”) and was the nephew of his predecessor, Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. John played an active role in the assassination of Nikephoros, entering into an agreement with …