Category «History»

The First Bookseller in Istanbul – Armenian Arakel

The First Bookseller in Istanbul

The first ever bookseller in Istanbul was Armenian Arakel Tozluian. He founded a bookstore in the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1875 and after a few years expanded his business to an entire publishing house. In 1884, Tozluian published the first book catalog in Turkey called the “Arakel’s Library”, the purpose of which was …

Woodrow Wilson’s Request to the US Congress to Grant a Mandate Over Armenia

Woodrow Wilson's Request to the US Congress

Message from US President Woodrow Wilson to Congress requesting the authority of the United States to adopt a mandate for Armenia. May 24, 1920. “Dear congressmen, On May 14, the Presidential Commission received an official message from the Secretary of the United States Senate, containing the following preamble paragraphs and resolutions: Because the evidence provided …

The Letter of Aharonyan to Hymans on the Aggression of Bolshevik Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey Against Armenia

The Letter of Aharonyan to Hymans

When publishing documents from the times of the occupation of the First Republic of Armenia by the Russian-Turkish forces, you feel persistent historical déjà vu and obvious parallels with what is happening now. Today, Russia is pursuing the same policy as the Bolshevik Russia did towards Armenia a hundred years ago. If you read the …

The US Military on Guard of Armenian Orphans – 1919

The US Military on Guard of Armenian Orphans

By order of US President Woodrow Wilson, the US military was engaged in organizing the protection of Armenian orphans during the Armenian Genocide, as well as the delivery of humanitarian aid and other vital issues. During this period, the US government and private organizations allocated colossal funds to build orphanages for tens of thousands of …

Mikoyan & Co’s Telegram to Chicherin

Mikoyan & Co’s Telegram to Chicherin

Below is the text of the telegram from the chairman of the Azerbaijani Revolutionary Committee N. Narimanov, member of the Caucasian Regional Executive Committee Mdivani, member of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijani Communist Party A. Mikoyan, and member of the Armenian Communist Party’s Committee P. Nurijanyan to the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs of …

The Value System of the Armenian Warrior – Armen Ayvazyan

The Value System of the Armenian Warrior

In 384, Sparapet Manvel Mamikonyan on his deathbed, transferring to his son Artashir “the power of the house owner and the position of commander-sparapet”, told him: “With joy accept death for the Country of Armenia like your brave ancestors.” (Pavstos Buzand, “History of Armenia”, Yerevan, 1953, book 5, chapter 44) This order of the commander-in-chief …

Legran’s Letter to Chicherin About the Need to Encourage the Turks at The Expense of Armenia

Legran's Letter to Chicherin

The letter of the plenipotentiary representative of the RSFSR in Armenia Boris Legran was preceded by the surrender of Karabakh, Zangezur, and Nakhichevan by official Azerbaijan, as well as Stalin’s pompous message concerning “the once and for all solved Armenian problem.” Stalin’s message, in particular, stated: “The centuries-old enmity between Armenia and the neighboring Muslims …

The Judiciary of the First Republic of Armenia

Finance, Trade, and Industry

From the point of view of legal proceedings, Armenia was subordinate to Tiflis until 1918. In Armenia, there was only one district court and several magistrates’ courts. A court of cassation did not exist as well. Legal proceedings were carried out in Russian. After the declaration of independence, the Ministry of Justice of Armenia was …

There Is No Second Garegin Nzhdeh In The World

There Is No Second Garegin Nzhdeh

Try to find in the Armenian history or in the history of mankind a hero with an identity with Garegin Nzhdeh. The invincible commander, the magnificent philosopher, the founder of an ideology, the creator of a state, a brilliant orator – this is not a complete list of merits pressed into the great heart of …

Mountainous Armenia Against Russian-Turkish Invaders – 1920

Mountainous Armenia

At the same time, at the instigation of the Russians, the Kemalists invaded Armenia. While the Armenians lost the Armenian-Turkish war on and Armenia itself was Sovietized, the Armenian rebels led by Poghos Ter-Davtian and Garegin Nzhdeh managed to drive the Russian-Turkish-Tatar hordes out from Syunik. On December 25, 1920, they created an independent state …