Traces of ancient human habitation were found in various regions of the Armenian Highlands. In Arzni and Nurnu, temporary settlements from the Neolithic era with stone tools were found. Additionally, dwelling caves were discovered in the Hrazdan Gorge and Lusakert. The oldest discovered stone tools are 800 thousand years old.
Numerous rock paintings with hunting scenes were discovered in the mountains as well.
The first agricultural and cattle-breeding settlements on the territory of future Armenia emerged in the Ararat valley, on the territory of modern Shirak.
On the territory of modern Yerevan in the Shengavit area in 1978, a settlement of the beginning of the Bronze Age was discovered, dating back to the 5th-3rd millennia BC.
Wherever the natural conditions were favorable for crops and cattle grazing, there used to be settlements of clans or large families.
In mountainous areas, high locations were chosen for such settlements. In plains, natural hills have gradually grown over several centuries due to the establishment of various settlements in the same locations.
These settlements in the southern regions (in Armenia) consisted of houses built of mud bricks on stone foundations.
A typical dwelling house incorporated a round room with a diameter of 5-7 meters and a support stone for the pillar in the center. The pillar appears to have supported the roof.
Data from archaeological excavations confirms that the inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have mastered many crafts in ancient times. It is known that already in the 5th-4th millennia BC, they knew how to smelt copper, and in the 2nd millennium BC iron.
In Armenia, during the excavations of the Areni cave in September 2008, the oldest known footwear was found, aged over 5500 years.
The find dates back to the Eneolithic period (3600-3500 BC). These are soft shoes with pointed ends – charokhs.
The discovered footwear is the oldest archaeological find in Europe and Asia. According to experts, this footwear practically does not differ from the one traditionally worn in Armenian villages.