The Armenian tiara has been the symbol of the monarchical power of the Armenian Artaxiad (Artashesyan) dynasty. It is a unique headgear in the form of a truncated cone or cylinder with four or five pointed prongs, on which the royal diadem was placed. The diadem was ornamented with images of two eagles looking in opposite directions and an 8-pointed star between them, which has been the family coat of arms of Artaxiads.
The Artaxiad dynasty has been one of the most powerful dynasties of Armenia. Tigran II the Great, one of the dynasty’s kings, expanded the Armenian Kingdom to its greatest extent during his reign in 95 – 55 BC. Besides the Artaxiad dynasty, Armenian, Hittite, Assyrian-Babylonian, Persian, and Greek sources contain accounts of the following Armenian royal families:
- Haykazuni dynasty, established by legendary Hayk Nahapet (2492/2107 — 331 BC).
- Arartuni dynasty (Urartu, ca. 860 – 590 BC).
- Yervanduni (Orontid) dynasty (ca. 401 – 200 BC).
- Artashesyan (Artaxiad) dynasty (189 – 52 BC), a Haykazuni branch of the Orontids.
- Arshakuni (Arsacid) dynasty (52 AD – 428 AD).
- Bagratuni (Bagratid) dynasty (886 – 1045).
- Rubenyan-Hetumyan-Lusignan (Rubenid-Hetumid-Lusignan) dynasty (1080 – 1375).
Five Armenian states have existed during the last several millennia, as well as several local kingdoms and royal dynasties like Vaspurakan, Syunik, Vanad, and other kingdoms. However, only the representatives of main royal dynasties wore the title of kings.