Natural and Climatic Conditions in Old Armenia

Natural and Climatic Conditions in Old ArmeniaThe development of human population, especially in early period, depended on surrounding environment (conditions). The geographical latitudes of Old Armenia were in limits from about 41°N down to 300N.

In early (the first) period Armenians lived in South Caucasus and Armenian Highland in latitude limits from 36° to 41° and in longitude limits of about of 37°· 49° with total territory of about 400 000 sq. km, which is now called Historical Armenia and where Armenian kingdoms were developed.

Historical Armenia is the upland with average altitude about 1700 m and with many extinct volcanic mountain ridges. Armenian Highland is the geographical name (term) of separate mountainous territory between Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas, which is towering above surrounding territories.

The NW part of Armenian Highland includes the mountain ridges of High Armenia and is going until the seaboard of Black Sea; the North and NE parts include Ararat Valley and Armenian Par (dance) ridge and are going until Rion and Cour rivers and Caspian sea; the SE part (with lake Urmia) is going until Iranian Plateau; the SW part is going until North (Armenian) Mesopotamia; and the West part is going until Asia Minor Plateau.

The highest Mount is Ararat (Big Ararat or Masis with altitude 5165m and Small Ararat • 3925m) which is beautifully towering above Ararat Valley (about 900m) with river Aracs, and which is at almost equal distances from lakes Sevan, Van and Urmia, and also from Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas. Mount Ararat with Ararat Valley is shown in Fig. 52, 53 and 54.

The sky in Armenia is usually blue, with the Sun. There are often the beautiful Sunsets, as shown in Fig. 55. There are also many other high extinct volcanoes such as Mount Aragats (4095m, with four tops and a huge crater in the middle of them), Sipan 4434m, Khachkar 3937m, Kapoutjough 3917m, Gemagan 3609m, Ishkhanasar 3552m, Tondrak 3542m, Artos 3475m, Rmbasar 3373m, Mravasar 3343m, Samsar 3285m, Khustup 3216m, Sarmants (Byourakn) 3189m, Mndzour 3188m, Maimekh 3109m, Nemrut 3050m, Maroutasar 2967m, and many others [68].

Armennian Mountains consist of huge quantity of useful stones (granite, basalt, tuff, obsidian, agate, etc.), metals (iron, copper, gold, tin, molybdenum, etc.). There are also many big and small rivers, many springs of cold and pure water. There are large forests in valleys, slopes of mountains, and many flowers. Let us remember that here was the Biblical paradise.

The climate is temperate with not very hot Summer (20°- 30°C), and snowy but not very frosty Winter (_5°, -15°C). The air is clear, there are many sunny days (about 360 days per year) and clear sky (starry) nights. There is the reach animal kingdom: lions, tigers and jaguars (in past), deers, bears, foxes, goats, harts, wolves, etc., also eagles,. storks, cranes, swallows, pigeons etc. Many fishes are in lakes and rivers.

Historian Kh.Samouelyan tells that at Stone Age (Paleolithic) in Armenia there lived even mammoths, bones of which were excavated in Lorri, near rivers Debbed and Phammbak confluence, in Gyumri (see Fig. 56 and 57), which are kept in Yerevan Geological Museum, another skeleton was excavated near village Khnus, which are kept in British Museum with name “Elephas Armeniacus” [34, pp. 108,109].

Nature of Armenia with mountain relief, variable climate (Summer Winter), rich natural resources and other conditions were favorable for life and development of Stone Age Man and forwarded the fast evolution of his culture.

An extract from the book “Armenians and Ancient Armenia” by Paris Heoruni.

Fig. 52. Mount Ararat (still in Turkey) and Ararat Valley. View from Armenia
Fig. 53. Ararat. View from Armenian Capital of Armenia
Fig. 54. Ararat and Ararat Valley from Mount Aragats. Winter. Morning. Painted by P. Herouni
Fig. 56. Skeleton of a Mammoth excavated in Armenia. Fig. 57. Picture of a Mammoth painted by Stone Age Man.

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