Category «Antiquities»

Cyrus and Tigran – Bosom Friends

Cyrus and Tigran – Bosom Friends

According to the Armenian tradition, Persian King Cyrus the Great and Armenian prince Tigran were long-time bosom friends who together defeated the Midian kingdom. Ancient Greek historian, commander, and politician Xenophon (5th-4th centuries BC) has written down the Persian legend about the friendly relations between Cyrus the Great and Armenian prince Tigran. Xenophon himself at …

Ancient Temple of Mithra Discovered in Historical Armenia

Ancient Temple of Mithra

In the Turkish province of Diyarbakir (in historical Western Armenia), scientists discovered a unique underground temple dedicated to the ancient deity Mithra. The structure is estimated to have an age of 1,700 years. According to the Turkish “Hurriyet”, the temple was discovered near the historic Zerzevan castle during archaeological excavations conducted by the staff of …

Ancient Step Pyramid Discovered in Armenia

Ancient Step Pyramid

For several years now, the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia has been conducting a number of archaeological excavations in the villages of the Ararat Valley. This year, investigations led the archaeologists to an unusual structure which was built in the 3th-2th millennia BC. Interestingly, the structure in …

Ways to Decipher Armenian Cryptograms

Ways to Decipher Armenian Cryptograms

We present to your attention a very interesting film on decrypting Armenian cryptograms. It turns out that this is not at all difficult. The film’s scriptwriter is Samvel Karapetyan, editor is Trdat Karapetyan, and composer is Aydina Davudi. A cryptogram is a type of puzzle that consists of a small piece of encrypted text. Typically, …

Unique Decree Signed by the Armenian King of Cilicia

Unique Decree Signed by the Armenian

We present to your attention an archival document compiled seven centuries ago in 1331. This document is a decree on the creation of a free trade zone with Europe signed by the Armenian King of Cilicia Levon IV. According to this decree, in order to organize trade, Levon IV granted special economic privileges to merchants …

The Ancient Armenian Proto-Hayk Calendar

The Ancient Armenian Proto-Hayk Calendar

“There is direct evidence of the existence of the proto-Hayk calendar,” said Ph.D. in astrophysics and calendar scientist Grigor Brutyan. “In antiquity, calendar studies in Armenia were considered to be a rather rare specialty. Moreover, it was highly respected. But how much do we know about this science and its origins?” “Let’s start with the …

The Battle Between Hayk and Bel

The Battle Between Hayk and Bel

On August 11, 2492 BC, on the eastern shore of Lake Van, Vayots dzor, the battle between Hayk and Bel took place. The tyrant of Mesopotamia and Elam Mesilim Bel demanded from the priests of the state of Armenia (Aratta) to accept his dominion. He received a refusal. The combined army of Mesopotamia and Elam, …

Armenia, An Ancient Center of Metallurgy

Armenia, An Ancient Center of Metallurgy

In the territory of the Armenian Highlands from the 5th to the 4th millennia BC, locals have processed and exported almost all types of minerals. Among them have been copper, tin, gold, silver, iron, lead, zinc, magnesium, antimony, arsenic, quartz, salt, and much more. Metal casting and the manufacture of various products from weapons and …

Quintus Curtius on Armenia and the Armenian Highlands

Quintus Curtius on Armenia

“The route to there goes through a steppe. The area between the Euphrates and Tigris is so fat and abundant that it is said that cattle are driven away from there not to die from over-satiety. The reason for such fertility is irrigation: the moisture from the rivers through water-bearing veins is spread throughout the …

The Ancient Armenian State of Nairi

The Ancient Armenian State of Nairi

Nairi was an Armenian state which formed after the unification of Armenian tribes in the struggle against Assyria. In the ancient cuneiform tablets of that time, the king of Nairi was also often called the king of the Ararat kingdom. Thus, the term “Ararat kingdom” – or the Kingdom of Van (Urartu) – has been …