Armenia and Its First Boundaries from Ancient Portals of History

The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great

by Natalya Sobol. The Armenian people belong to one of the oldest and insufficiently studied nations in the world. The history of Armenia, with roots stretching back over millennia, has always attracted attention. Unfortunately, in Russia, popular scientific literature on Armenian studies, intended for a broad readership, is not widely represented.

Regrettably, the works of scholars who have engaged in this field of historical science are almost never reprinted.

These include the writings of Academician N. Marr, B. Piotrovsky, V. Minorsky, V. Bryusov, and many others. It is extremely difficult for a Russian-speaking reader to find the works of such scholars as G.E. Smith, D. Derry, P. Schnobel, E. Hüten, M.C. Jake, Baron Oppenheim, L.S. de Campa, and others (the concept of hyperdiffusionism in ancient history).

Books by ancient Armenian scholars and historians like D. Anakht, Agafangel, Z. Glak, Yeghishe, F. Buzand, M. Khorenatsi, Koryun, K. Parpetsi, and medieval Armenian authors such as I. Mamikonyan, Gevond, F. Artsruni, O. Drasxanakertsi, S. Taronetsi (Aso(h)ik – ancient Arm.), S. Anetsi, A. Lastivertsi, M. Urkhaetsi, Smbat Gunstable, Etum, K. Gandzaketsi, S. Orbelian, F. Metsopetsi, Z. Sarkovag, A. Davrizhetsi, and many others are practically unknown to Russian-speaking history enthusiasts (except for a narrow circle of specialists). Yet this is a colossal layer in world culture, representing enormous interest for both professionals and history enthusiasts. So, a touch to the origins of ancient Armenia.

No country has had as many names as Armenia. In the legends and epics of peoples from different continents, in pagan, ancient, Orthodox, Catholic, and Muslim sources, there are attention-deserving details on this matter.

The Armenians call themselves the people of “(h)ay,” “(h)aykami” (and according to Movses Khorenatsi, also “torgmiytsi” from the name Torgom – a descendant of Noah, the fourth generation from his son Japheth).

And they define their country, accordingly, as “Hayk” or “Hayastan.” Sumerian sources suggest the existence of a very ancient Armenian state “Aratta” (V-IV millennium BCE). The Hittites called this country “Haysa,” the Assyrians – “Country of Urartu,” and the Van Armenians – “Biayna.”

In some other Sumerian and Assyrian sources, Armenia is mentioned as the country “Nairi, the land of 50 rivers” (another name translates as “Land of Streams”). The ancient Persians spoke of these lands as “Kugi Nu” (“Land of Noah”), “Armina,” or “Armiiya.” Georgian sources tell of it as the country “Somkheti,” or “Samkheti,” Akkadian – speak of “Armani,” “Urariya,” and “Urastu.” Elamite – about “Harmiugarra,” later “Armini” or “Armani.”

In many sources, Armenians are referred to as the “biblical people.” In the Old Testament, the ancestors of the Armenians are described as the very first people on Earth — the “people of Amalek,” and another name for this ancient people is “shasu-yahweh.” (1) This is reported in the Jewish book “Parashat Zachor.”

The people of Amalek are also called the “first of all nations” in Balaam’s prophecy (Numbers, 24:20). The Old Testament Jewish prophet Jeremiah also mentions the ancient Armenians. He advises the Jews, who found themselves in a difficult political situation, to seek military assistance from the Armenians (the prophet lists three Armenian kingdoms “Ararat,” “Ashkenaz” (2), and “Minni” /biblical name of Lesser Armenia/; Jeremiah, chapter 52, verse 27).

In Egyptian, and later in Arabic sources, the ancestors of the Armenians are referred to as the ancient “people of Amu.” For the Romans, Armenia is Sebastia, and the Armenian people themselves are Sebastians. There is another name for Sebastia — Samaria (the good Samaritan who gave Christ water to drink).

Certainly, there is a generally accepted version of this territorial unit, but there are also apocrypha, as well as numerous correspondences from ancient texts by Nazarites, which are practically unexplored.

The Greeks, on the other hand, transformed the Persian transcription of the designation of Armenian lands “Armina” in their own way. And the ancient lands of “(h)aik” came to have the designation that we know and use today — this is “Armenia” (existing since 450 BC).

Armenia, occupying a vast and rich territory in all respects, aroused envy among its neighbors, as a result of which it was constantly subjected to attacks by numerous enemies.

Various historical sources mention the following names for Armenian territorial units at different times: Greater Armenia, Lesser Armenia, and also Highland, Eastern, Western, Inner, Satrap’s Armenia. Armenia — First, Second, Third, Fourth, disputed Adiabene, (3) Commagene, Sophene (“Tsopk”-anc.arm.), Osroene, Cilicia.

The vast territory of Armenia extended on both sides of the Euphrates River. To the west lay Lesser Armenia (“Lesser (h)aik” — anc.arm.), and to the east Greater Armenia (“Greater (h)aik” — anc.arm.).

Lesser Armenia — an ancient region (known as “Khaisa”), was located in the upper reaches of the Euphrates River. L.A. lost independence and was part of the Hittite kingdom, but by the second century, it was already an independent state (capital Ani-Kamakh).

It was located between 38 and 34 degrees east longitude and 36 and 41 degrees north latitude. At the end of the 1st century, L.A. (Lesser Armenia) became part of Greater Armenia. L.A. included the following territorial units:

  1. Armenian Cappadocia, Gamirk (Mazhak);
  2. First Armenia (Marash);
  3. Second Armenia (Comana);
  4. Third Armenia (Amasya).

Greater Armenia — an ancient Armenian kingdom (4th century BC – 387 AD, capital Armavir, Artashat). Later, a satrapy of the Achaemenid dynasty. From the end of the 4th – beginning of the 3rd century BC, it was a sovereign Armenian state. On the border of the 3rd-2nd centuries BC, G.A. was under Seleucid rule.

From 189 AD, G.A. was again a sovereign state (flourishing 1st century BC, during the reign of Tigranes II). By the end of the 1st century, G.A. had become strong enough to annex Lesser Armenia. G.A. fought for its independence against Rome, Persia, and Byzantium. It waged wars against the Turkmen tribes “Ak-Koyunlu” (“White Sheep”) and “Kara-Koyunlu” (“Black Sheep”), the nomadic Oghuz tribes (ancestors of the Turks), the Alans (ancestors of the Ossetians), etc.

However, it is appropriate to add that the attacks on Armenia were not only of a predatory nature. Very often, they also had a religious undertone. After the Armenians converted to Christianity, the Persians forced the Armenians to convert to Zoroastrianism. Another bloody precedent occurred in 311 when the pagan Emperor Maximilian declared war on the Armenians for mass conversion to Christianity.

A. (Armenia) bravely repelled the attacks of the Khazars, Seljuk Turks, Mongol-Tatars, and Arabs. In the 15th century, on the orders of the “one-eyed lame emir,” Armenian lands were subjected to total looting and massacre. These devastating invasions by Emir Lenk-i-Timur were in punishment for the Armenians’ repeated refusal to convert to Islam.

G.A. was located between 88 and 50 degrees east longitude and 36 and 42 degrees north latitude. It included the following territorial units:

  1. High Armenia or Upper Hayk (Ani-Kamakh, /from 1st century/ and Erzurum);
  2. Fourth Armenia (Arshamatat);
  3. Aghdznik (Tigranakert);
  4. Tayk (Bog-Berd);
  5. Gugark (Artagan);
  6. Korchayk (Djigan);
  7. Virk (Tpkhis, the ancient name of Tbilisi);
  8. Ayrarat (Armavir);
  9. Turuberan (Gaykashen). This province (“nohang” — ancient Armenian) had significant territory and included the following regions: a) Pars-Armenia (Salmast); b) Matiani (Izirtu); c) Gandzak (Gandzak); d) Vararut (Tarezh); e) Gilan (Gaylaman); f) Mahrakan (Grant); g) Shanchan (Shanchan); h) Patijagar (Patijagar).
  10. Korchayk (Makhker);
  11. Mokk (Aparank);
  12. Vaspurakan (Van);
  13. Artsakh (Tigranokert), later Karabakh (Shushi) (4)
  14. Agvank (Kapagak, /Partav/);
  15. Utik (Farnes);
  16. Paytakaran (Bakurakert);
  17. Atrpatakan;
  18. Syunik (Baga-Berd, /Kapan/).

The rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Araks, and Kura originated in Greater Armenia. Its territory also included the lakes Van, Kaputan (Urmia), Sevan, and Tatta.

But there is another ancient name for Armenia – “the land of Aram,” i.e., Aramia (4th Book of Kings). In the Old Testament, this country was referred to as such and included Syria, Mesopotamia, Sinai, and the peoples living there.

“In turn, the country of Aram itself was divided into the following territorial parts:

  1. Aram Naharaim (so-called Island, between the Tigris and Euphrates);
  2. Aram Damascus (Palestine);
  3. Aram Zobah (vicinity of Damascus and Hamath);
  4. Aram Beth Rehob (north of Galilee);
  5. Aram Maacah;
  6. Aram Geshur.

The Arameans spread throughout the country, coming from Kir; some understand this name to mean the region of the Kura River (Caucasus).” Further, the “Orthodox Theological Encyclopedic Dictionary” provides interesting information about the fact that Arameans lived in Aramea, and “… the Arameans are considered the ancestors of the Armenians.”

The country called Aram (main city: Damascus) was conquered by the Assyrians and considered an Assyrian province; it was subdued by Alexander the Great, and after his death, it turned into the Syrian kingdom; in 64 AD, it was subjugated to Rome. Marsden mentions that “… descendants of Alexander’s Macedonian kingdom ruled in Greater Armenia.”

And before the Macedonian era, the reins of governance belonged to the prominent ancient Armenian royal family of Yervanduni. This surname has immortalized itself and has been preserved in the names of cities built by the Yervand dynasty: Yervandakert, Yervandasat, Yervandavan.

Accordingly, the Armenian language is rightfully considered one of the oldest languages on the planet. (4) Some scholars believe that the ancient Armenians spoke the Aramaic language, (5) on which other nations subsequently began to speak.

The Orthodox Encyclopedic Dictionary also reports that the Aramaic language, spoken by the ancestors of the Armenians, gave life to many languages. For example, from the Aramaic language “… arose the Syrian language, with a rich literature (IV-VII centuries, flourishing).

In the XIII century, the Syrian language, suppressed by Arabic, disappeared). From the Aramaic language also came Chaldean. After the Babylonian Captivity, Chaldean (Aramaic) spread through Palestine; in it (in Aramaic; note S.N.) spoke Jesus Christ and the apostles. This language has come down in fragments and is heavily mixed with Hebrew.”

Since the 19th century in Armenian studies, there has been a prevailing opinion that from deep antiquity, as a result of prolonged tribal intermingling, closely sounding dialects grouped together: “mush,” “arme,” and “haysa.” Around the II century BC, a common language emerged, thanks to King Artashes I (?-168 BC; reign from 189 BC).

He led a rebellion and headed the liberation movement against the domination of the Seleucids. Artashes proclaimed the independence of Armenia and created a country that ancient sources called “Armenia Strabo.” All the population of united Armenia began, by his order, to speak a single state language. The Armenian language itself is divided into three successive temporal types:

  1. grabar (ancient);
  2. Middle Armenian;
  3. ashkharabar (secular).

In turn, the latter has two main dialects (“barbara” — Armenian): Western (“arevmtha(h)aeren” — Armenian) and Eastern (“arevela(h)aeren” — Armenian). In total, the Armenian language has more than 80 dialects.

For example, the Armenians of the Don speak in the Crimean dialect (“(h)ay-khrim” — ancient Armenian), into which Turkic word formations were infused during the medieval period.

The “Armenian accent” (from the Flood period) has various sources — ancient legends, manuscripts, and other objects of material and spiritual culture of different peoples. This is also indicated by the etymology and ancient toponymy of some archaic geographical names, showing their strictly defined Biblical orientation.

They point to many historical events and significant periods in the life of Patriarch Noah (directly related to the history of Armenia and Armenians; note S.N.). Among other things, they tell about the stopping of “Noah’s Ark” on Mount Ararat (“Varas Baris,” “Masis” — ancient Armenian). The Armenian name of the mountain translates to “Holy” or “High Land.”

Many archaic Biblical names of localities also have ancient Armenian etymology.

For example, Yerevan (Eribuni, Yerevan) translates as “appearance.” That is, the appearance of the long-awaited land to Noah, Nakhichevan means “shelter.” Akkori translates as “planting of the vine.”

Indeed, in the Akkori region (destroyed by an earthquake in 1840), Noah planted a grapevine. Marand is “the place of the mother,” where Noah buried his wife, and where her tomb is located. Arrioiton — “at Noah’s feet,” the burial place of Patriarch Noah himself, and so on.

And if we move from the Biblical area to remote regions of the Earth, far from Armenia, there too, you can hear Armenian roots in the names of localities, cult buildings, etc. For example, the mountains “Carpathians” – translated from ancient Armenian means “Stone Wall,” and in Australia, indigenous tribes worship the stone “Ayers Rock,” brought from the homeland of their ancestor.

And the word “Ayers” translated from archaic grabar means “ancestral”! But that’s not all, Ptolemy (“Geography of Asia Minor”) described ancient Armenian cities, among them were the cities of Zuivan, Zalissa, etc.

So, in the territory of Mesoamerica, the Mayan aristocracy (ruling elite, people “pilli”) built cult centers. They are called Zuivana, Xalissko, etc. The ruling fair-skinned people “pilli” included only representatives of the highest nobility. According to ancient Mayan legend, travelers who came from afar taught them many things, including building pyramids.

How can one not remember B. Moishezon and his article “Armenoids aristocracy of antiquity”! In Russia, this is the city of Khabarovsk, named in honor of Khabarov. The root of the word “Khabar,” translated from grabar, means “news, tidings”! The list of dispersion of the Armenoid race around the world can be continued for a long time …

It should be added that Armenia is a country with an ancient prehistoric past. It has made a tremendous contribution to world culture. This is evidenced by the majestic ruins (deliberately not restored) on the territory of modern Turkey (Ani ruins).

In Azerbaijan, there are catacomb tombs, temples, and Khachkars of Nakhichevan. In Kyrgyzstan, it’s the flooded monastery of Surb-Lazar (at the bottom of Lake Issyk-Kul), and in Turkmenistan (near Ashgabat, Old Nisa) it’s Mithridatokerta — an entire city necropolis, the burial place of the Armenian kings of the Arshakid dynasty, the Airtam stone frieze (Kushan Empire).

On the territory of Armenia itself, there are the caves of Vayots Dzor (5th millennium BCE), the ancient observatory complex of Kara-undzh, (a later complex located in England is Stonehenge).

The world’s first “iron smelting complex” and observatory in Metsamor, (6) a pagan temple in Garni, the Teishebaini citadel, medieval universities (Gladzor, Tatev, and many others). A unique medieval inn (“idjevan” — anc. Armenian; “caravanserai” — Turkic; Syunik pass). One of the four cities of Tigranes the Great in Nagorno-Karabakh. (7) On the border of Syria and Turkey, an underground city (the city of Nowhere), etc., the list is huge.

The Armenian people have faced many hardships, especially after Armenia’s adoption of Christianity. “The country has changed hands many times, the people have been scattered several times, and at present, it is ruled by Russia, Turkey, and Persia, having divided it among themselves. Armenia is the first Christian state.”

According to numerous legends and various ancient historical sources, it is clear that “… Christianity arose there, according to tradition, even during the earthly life of Jesus Christ. (8) Until the 4th century, it gradually developed, and from the 4th century it was already determined: churches began to be built, dioceses were founded, church ceremonies were introduced (marriage, burial), shelters, monasteries, refuges were established, councils were convened…”. (9)

The Christian author of the 2nd century, Tertullian (according to other sources Ter-Tullian), reports that a sermon to the people on the day of the Holy Trinity was read universally. Among other countries where this sermon was read, Armenia was directly mentioned (according to sources of that period it was located between Mesopotamia and Cappadocia, instead of Judea).

This was also written about by such a pillar of early Christianity as Blessed Augustine. Both Fathers of the African Church testified that Christianity had strong positions in Armenia already in the apostolic age. Judea, subsequently, was substituted for Armenia in the generally accepted text of the Bible (more than once “carefully” edited by the Masoretes). This so-called editing of biblical texts by the Masoretes is also reported in ancient Muslim sources.

The second adoption of Christianity by Armenia at the state level occurred in 301 (according to other sources in 291). The leading role in this significant event for the Armenian people was played by a Persian nobleman from the ancient Armenian Suren-Pahlavi family.

This is the Equal-to-the-Apostles saint — Gregory the Illuminator (“Lusavorich”-ancient Armenian), an ethnic Armenian, the Armenian branch of the Arshakid dynasty. It should be noted that a little earlier than the described events, Christianity also had very strong positions in Persia, and many ethnic Armenians living in Persian territories were Christians.

Early Christian chronicles report that after a palace coup, the new king of Persia, Ardashir I, even leaned towards accepting the sacrament of baptism at the advice of his vizier Ambartzum. In Armenia, more than 600 Greek and Syrian works were translated (many of which were destroyed and have only reached us in Armenian translations), liturgical books, and so on…


(1) Vasiliev A. “Shasu of New Egyptian Sources and Early History of Israel. The Ancient East and the Classical World.” Nemirovsky. Haigh A. “On the Shasu-peope” //ZAS 14/1876 p. 52-57. Torosyan A. “The Riddle of Moses,” art., trans. from ancient Greek. “Jewish Word,” No. 40 (313) 5767/2006 from 25, p.10-31, art. by Fadeeva N. “Avraam Galanti – scientist and politician.”

(2) About the Armenian kingdom “Azkenaz” A. Galanti wrote that its inhabitants are “a people living near Mount Ararat in Armenia (Genesis, 10:3; Paralipomenon, 1:6).” Ibid.

(3) “Armenian roots and origin” of the principality of Adiabene is disputed by some historians, but worthy of attention, Jewish sources, in the person of the scholar, historian, political and religious figure (a fierce friend and admirer of the Young Turk Revolution) Avraam Galanti, confirm this fact.

Indeed, “the ways of the Lord are unsearchable.” In his work “A Few Pages of the History of Jews in Armenia,” it is written: “The local royal dynasty of Adiabene, along with part of its subjects, adopted Judaism, as did the Khazars later. The capital of this principality was Arbela…

HAVING ACCEPTED JUDAISM, THE INHABITANTS OF THE ARMENIAN PRINCIPALITY were the only ones who tried to help the Jews during the Roman invasion of Judea. Later Galanti wrote: “Relations with Judea were maintained by the small principality of Adiabene. The ruler of Adiabene Izat (36-60 BC) and his mother Helena (“E(h)ine”-ancient Armenian; note S.N.), who accepted Judaism … also Monobaz II … Izat’s sons in Jerusalem studied the ancient Hebrew language and religious laws.” Helena “donated a golden candlestick to the Jerusalem temple.”

Also, she generously helped the hungry inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem. She ordered grain and dried fruits to be brought from Alexandria and Cyprus at her own expense. “Her son Izat … donated a significant amount of money … sent his valuable things to Izat’s brother — Monobaz. The rulers of Adiabene tried to help the Jews even during their desperate resistance to the Romans.

Josephus Flavius lists the most distinguished warriors in battle (Armenian; note S.N.) of Monobaz … “. Later Galanti notes that “historian Moise de Ivoren wrote that the descendants of the Amatuni tribe, related to the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty, claim that their distant ancestors were King David and Bathsheba … they claimed kinship with the Virgin Mary.” Ibid.

(4) During the Iron Age in Armenia, the Armenian hieroglyphic alphabet (“erkatagir”-ancient Armenian; literally “iron letters”) was created. It simplified the “cuneiform system of picto-ideographic and syllabic (syllable) hieroglyphic writing.”

The antiquity, kinship, and spread of the archaic Armenian language around the world is evidenced by its similarity not only to the Basque language but also to the Finno-Ugric languages (territory of modern Western Turkey) and the language of the Maya people (Mesoamerica; common use of monosyllabic and homophonic speech formations that have different meanings with the same pronunciation).

I. Donnelly first wrote about this in the 19th century, referring to Ptolemy’s source (“Geography of Asia Minor”). E. Huten (Harvard), as well as anthropologist M.W. Jackman (“Origin and History of the Maya”), T. Heyerdahl, and many others, wrote about the presence of the Armenoid race on the Canaries. S.N.. Aivazyan S. “History of Russia. Armenian trace”, M., “Kron-Press”, 1997, pp.171-178.

(5) This is also supported by the results of archaeological excavations conducted in Armenia. Boundary markers were found in the Sevan Lake area, which were used to demarcate communal and private lands.

These are “Aramaic inscriptions dating back to the reign of King Artashes I (189-160 BC).” As reported by the exhibition of the State Historical Museum of Armenia. “Guide to the State Historical Museum of Armenia,” Academy of Sciences of the Arm. SSR, Yerevan, 1963, p.15.

(6) The development of mining, as such, began in the mountains of Armenia. Z. Kosidovsky writes: “Somewhere in the Armenian mountains lived the tribe of Kizvadan, which in the 14th century BC learned to smelt iron … They found a way to produce iron cheaply and in large quantities.” The archaeological reserve Metsamor (III-IV millennia BC) has not yet revealed all its secrets.

To the southwest of Lake Aygerlich, one of the hills of the Metsamor area was uncovered by the archaeo/expedition of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR. The hills, composed of the most ancient tufa breccias and tuffs of the Tertiary period, were an original and unique monument to ancient smelting architecture.

The archaeologists uncovered a fortified settlement with a moat, a Bronze Age observatory (5 cultural layers, mid-III to early I century BC), and the center of mining and metallurgical production. 23 smelting furnaces were uncovered, and there were more than 200 in total. Among them was a vat-mixer (30 cubic meters) for a mixture of bone and clay, accelerating the melting process, and stacks of briquettes of this mixture. Many objects of material culture survived, made of bronze (various copper-arsenic-lead and copper-lead-zinc alloys): vessels, ornaments, knives, copper, silver coins, and much more. As well as pure metals; copper, gold, lead, and stainless hematite plates.

The “Iron Age” transformed Armenia into a country that could influence (culturally and militarily-politically) many countries. Evidence of this is provided by ancient sources — Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Frol. As well as medieval and modern authors — J. Morgan, Dikshit, F. Engels, Frankfurt, Z. Kosidovsky, B., Nemirovsky A., Moshezon, G. Smith, and many others. Dulyan A. Aslanyan A. “Meet Armenia”, Yerevan, “Aistan”, 1972, pp.107-108. Kosidovsky Z. “Biblical Legends. Evangelist Legends”, p. 167. “When the Sun was a God”, Novosibirsk, “Science”, 1991, pp. 321-329. Aivazyan S. “History of Russia. Armenian Trace”, M., “Kronpress”, 1991, pp. 50-65.

(7) A unique archaeo/expedition was organized by the Artsakh Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of Armenia in 2005. The American press dubbed these excavations the “Karabakh Troy.”

During the largest excavations of the pre-Christian period in the territory of Karabakh (1st century BC), Armenian archaeologists discovered the ancient capital of Tigran the Great. Numerous unique objects of the material culture of ancient Armenians came to light – a citadel, part of the fortress wall, pottery, agate gem.

(7) The Christian period is represented quite broadly: a single-nave basilica, 10 khachkars, a clay disc, crosses, and fish (5th-8th centuries AD), inscribed with the ancient Armenian alphabet “boloragir erkatagir.” The decline began after the Mongol-Tatar expansion in the 13th century. This fact allows us to refer to these lands as inherently Armenian. Excavations are being successfully conducted under the guidance of Hamlet Petrosyan — Doctor of Historical Sciences and Head of the Department of Cultural Studies at YSU in Armenia. Regnum.rf/news/fd-abroad/karabax/cultura/1563399.html.

(8) For the first time, the Armenians embraced Christianity at the state level in a particular country — Osroene, during the lifetime of Jesus Christ. King Abgar V Ukam of Osroene (“Abgar son of Arsham, called ‘avag(h)air’; according to M. Khorenatsi), corresponded with the Savior. Having received miraculous assistance from the image of Christ’s holy face in healing from illness, Abgar accepted holy baptism, and his subjects followed suit.

This icon is called “Christ Not Made by Human Hands” (another name for the wonder-working icon “The Image of Abgar”). It crowned the main city gates in the capital of Osroene, Edessa. The icon is now located in Genoa, in the church named after St. Bartholomew the Armenian, built in 1308 by two Basilian monks who came from Cilician Armenia. Various sources report this fact. Hegumen Roman (Zagrebnev) “Learning to Preach,” p. 136-139. Kocharian G. “The Precious Gift of the King of Osroene,” www sobesednikarmenii/ru/…161 34.

(9) However, “At the end of the 6th century, disputes arose between the Greek and Armenian Churches … which even led to division within the Armenian Church. Subsequently, the intervention of the Roman church not only failed to bring the Greeks and Armenians to any religious agreement but also cast upon this time a mark of confusion and doubt, so that, at present, up to 100,000 Armenians have altogether fallen away from the Armenian Church and have come under the influence of Rome, and there is even a leaning toward Protestantism.” (The orthography and punctuation of the source of that time have been preserved in this note, ed. S.N.). “Full Orthodox Theological Encyclopedic Dictionary,” vol. I, p. 224.

by Natalya Sobol, historian-Armenologist

Translated by Vigen Avetisyan


  1. Abegyan M. “History of Ancient Armenian Literature,” p. 479-480, in Armenian.
  2. “Abgar, Edessa’s Ruler” / “Christian Readings,” 1834/.
  3. Aivazyan S. “History of Russia. Armenian Trail,” p. 186.
  4. Akopyan E. “Armenian Studies in Russia /Philology Issues/,” Acad. of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, Yerevan, 1988, 10-15.
  5. Great Soviet Encyclopedia “Arizona-Ajaccio,” p. 56-61, 226-227.
  6. Bible, Genesis, 7:8, XI, 27,28,31,43; Ezekiel, 27:14, 38:6; Wisdom, 10:4. Same, Old Testament, Book of the Prophet Jeremiah, chapter 51, verse 27.
  7. Wikipedia; www googl ru/senrh; journal “BMC Biology.” Herodotus, bk. V, p. 52.
  8. Davrizhetsi A. “Book of Stories,” transl. from Armenian by Khanlaryan L., Moscow, 1973, p. 528-529.
  9. Drasxanakertsi I. “History of Armenia,” “Sovetakan Grokh,” Yerevan, 1986, p. 43-50, 53-54, 240-241, 243.
  10. Dulyan A. Aslanyan A. “Meet, Armenia,” Yerevan, “Aystan,” 1972, p. 107-108.
  11. Diakonov I. “Prehistory of the Armenian People,” Yerevan, p. 175-189.
  12. Eusebius of Caesarea “Church History,” chap. 9,8,2.
  13. Eremyan S. “On the Ethnogenesis of Armenians,” Yerevan, “Questions of History,” No. 7, 1952, p. 105.
  14. Hegumen Roman (Zagrebnjev) “Learning to Preach,” p. 136-139.
  15. “Art of the Eastern Countries,” p. 39-40.
  16. Kirakos “Foreword,” 1, Ed. Dularier “Recherehes sur La chronologie,” 3, enne XXX, XXXII, XXXIII, XXXV.
  17. Klimishin I. “Calendar and Chronology,” Science, Moscow, 1985, p. 158-159.
  18. Kosidovsky Z. “When the Sun was a God,” Science, Novosibirsk, 1991, p. 321-329.
  19. Lyubimov L. “Among the Treasures of the Hermitage,” p. 29-30.
  20. Manandyan Ya. “A Brief Review of the History of the Armenian People, 1944,” p. 66.
  21. Marsden F. “Crossroads. Traveling among the Armenians,” p. 163.
  22. Metropolitan of Bishkek and Central Asia Vladimir “Land of the Descendants of Patriarch Turk,” p. 29-30.
  23. Nestor the Chronicler “Tale of Bygone Years,” p. 8-9,22-27.
  24. Ormanyan M. “Armenian Church,” chap. II, IX.
  25. “Complete Orthodox Theological Encyclopedia Dictionary,” vol. I, p. 21,22,48,216, 224-225,253-254.
  26. “Guide to the Museum of Armenia,” p. 15.
  27. Sebeos “History of Emperor Heraclius,” O.1., O.2. Strabo “Geography,” XI, 14,15.
  28. “The Tale of the Man-made Image of the Savior of Katan” / “Christian Readings,” 1834/. Trever “Essays on the History of Armenian Culture,” L., p. 134.
  29. Flavius J. “Jewish Antiquities,” XX, chap. II.
  30. Khorenatsi M. “History of Great Armenia,” p. 33-82, manuscript No. 122. Same, “History of Armenia,” IFZH, Yerevan, 1973, II, p. 46-47 in Armenian lang.. Same, bk. I, chap. 9, bk. II, chap. 81.
  31. K.Humann, O.Puchstein “Reisen in Kleinasien und Nordsyrien,” Berlin, 1890.
  32. Shahkuni O. “Description of Etchmiadzin and Five Regions of Ararat, in 2 Parts,” 1, 285.
  33. Shcherbakov V., Large, “All About Atlantis,” M., 1990, p. 36-39,53,81,131,132. See also the works of I. Donnelly, Ziglinga V., Zega E.T. Heyerdahl (“Expedition to ‘Ra’ and others), M. Stingl, M. Stirling, etc..

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