The map produced by C.S. Hammond & Co., New York, in 1919, depicting the territory of the Republic of Armenia, is a remarkable historical document of the turbulent post-World War I period. This map includes not just the present-day Republic of Armenia but also regions such as Artsakh-Karabakh, Nakhichevan, and much of what is known as Eastern Armenia.
Artsakh-Karabakh, known in the international community as Nagorno-Karabakh, is a region in the South Caucasus that has long been a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan. This region has a majority Armenian population and declared independence from Azerbaijan in the early 1990s, leading to the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Nakhichevan is an exclave of Azerbaijan, which shares a border with Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. Historically, it had a significant Armenian population. Over the years, tensions and conflicts have led to shifts in its demography.
Eastern Armenia is a term often used to refer to parts of Historikal Armania that were inhabited by Armenians before the Armenian Genocide during World War I.
The 1919 map by C.S. Hammond & Co. illustrates these territories as part of the Republic of Armenia, reflecting the political aspirations of the Armenian people at the time. After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917 and before the establishment of Soviet rule in Armenia in 1920, there was a brief period when Armenia was an independent republic. This map likely depicts one of the maximum territorial claims of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia.
The First Republic was formed after the collapse of the Transcaucasian Federation, and it included Eastern Armenia and parts of Western Armenia liberated during World War I.
It’s important to note that the current borders of the Republic of Armenia are significantly smaller and do not include most of the territories depicted in the 1919 map. Today’s Republic of Armenia was established in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The map by C.S. Hammond & Co. is more than a historical document; it also stands as a symbol of a period of significant change and aspiration for the Armenian people. It serves as a powerful reminder of the complex and tumultuous history of the region. Maps such as these are invaluable resources for historians and scholars studying geopolitical changes and can offer unique insights into the political climate and territorial disputes of the time.
Map source: Gevork Nazaryan
Map of the Republic of Armenia that includes Artsakh-Karabakh, Nakhichevan, and much of Western Armenia. C.S. Hammond & Co., New York. 1919.