The last Russian emperor, Nicholas II (1894-1917), was the immediate executioner of the Armenian people on par with the Turkish authorities. In particular, during the Armenian pogroms of 1894-1896, the Russian emperor declared his support to the Turkish sultan Abdul Hamid.
Moreover, Russian diplomacy called the rising movement against the Sultan policy of exterminating the Armenians “part of the international revolution that must be suppressed at the very beginning.” And Russian Foreign Minister Lobanov-Rostovsky instructed the Sultan: “Exterminate, Your Majesty, exterminate.”
This happened at a time when the Russians were trying in every way to prevent British pressure on the Sultan. The British demanded the implementation of a reform program in the Ottoman Empire, which was regarded by Russians as interference in the internal affairs of Turkey.
During the reign of Nicholas II, many Armenian schools were closed down, and Armenian leaders were persecuted, arrested, and sent into exile. In June 1903, a law was passed under Nicholas to confiscate the property of the Armenian Church.
In 1905, Armenian-Tatar clashes were artificially provoked as well. And in the end, it was under Nicholas II that in the summer of 1915, the Russian army without any explanation retreated from Van Province, condemning its population to death.