After the fall of the Ani Kingdom, the Turkic Seljuq tribes invaded Armenia from Central Asia.
They quickly inflicted a crushing defeat on the Byzantine Empire near Manazkert (1071), which marked the transition of the most of Armenia under the control of the Seljuqs.
However, at the beginning of the 12th century, the state of the Seljuqs broke up into a number of independent emirate principalities. Many Armenian princedoms retained their independence, including Vanand, Syunik, Lori, and others.
It is important to note that since the 11th century, the Seljuq Turks began to press the Armenians on their own lands, especially in the plain areas of the Armenian Highlands.
Following the Seljuq Turks, Mongolian Tatars (12th century) appeared in Armenia. Their invasion was also lightning fast yet short-lived. The Mongol-Tatars’ stayed in Armenia for about one hundred years.