On August 10, 1920, in Tiflis, between the delegations of Soviet Russia and the Republic of Armenia fighting off the attack of the Russian occupation army, an agreement was signed, according to which the military clashes between the two countries were to cease and the control over the so-called disputed territories of Zangezur, Nakhichevan, and Karabakh was to be ceded to the Bolsheviks. The fate of these territories was to be determined later.
By that time, Russia had two allies – Kemalist Turkey and Azerbaijan. The latter became a Soviet republic in the spring of 1920. It became clear what the existence of such a tandem would lead to.
What happened to Karabakh, Nakhichevan, and the Republic of Armenia itself has been discussed many times. Thanks to the efforts of the Kemal-Bolshevik tandem, the Republic of Armenia ceased to exist.
By the way, during the signing of the agreement with Armenia, Russia simultaneously held negotiations with the Kemalists. In those days, a Kemalist delegation headed by Samir Bekir was in Moscow.
It should be noted that quite important evidence of Russian-Turkish cooperation is provided by Turkish officials themselves.
As Ali Fuat Cebesoy, a diplomat and Turkish statesman close to Kemal, noted in his memoirs, “when our representatives recalled that there was a lot of noise from the Armenians and they were not as innocent as it seemed and some said, Lenin answered: ‘Yes, indeed, but there is no doubt that both Armenia and Georgia should soon become what we want.’”
The head of the Turkish delegation Bekir Samir Bey, summing up his impressions of the meeting, emphasized: “We found Lenin a very sympathetic person with a very open heart, very friendly to us and the Muslim world.”
A noteworthy proof of Lenin’s “goodwill” noted by Bekir Samir was the Russian-Turkish agreement signed in Moscow on August 24, 1920, and Lenin’s consent to launch an attack on the Republic of Armenia.
As a result of these negotiations, a secret Russo-Turkish treaty was signed, according to which the Bolsheviks provided the Turks with weapons and ammunition, military force, and gold to attack Armenia.
Subsequently, when the Bolsheviks and Turks jointly destroyed the Republic of Armenia, Nakhichevan, previously considered to be a disputed territory, was surrendered to Azerbaijan in accordance with the Moscow Treaty of Friendship and Brotherhood signed on March 16, 1921.
And by decision of July 5, 1921, Karabakh was also presented to Azerbaijan. And only Syunik, thanks to the heroic efforts and long resistance of Nzhdeh and his associates, did not become a victim of this tandem.