The Territory of Nakhichevan

Report

The administrative-political statuses of the territory of Nakhichevan within the realm of Historical Armenia up to now

The Report based on questions and answers briefly presents the political destination of the territory of Nakhichevan of Historical Armenia from the very beginning up to now

Question 1. Which territories of Nakhichevan were involved in Historical Armenia?

Answer 1. Nakhichevan (Nakhchvan) is the 35th province of Vaspurakan, the 8th province of Mets Hayk‘ (Great Armenia), ‘where the city that shares the same name is located.’[1] Nevertheless, Goght‘n,[2] the 34th province of Vaspurakan in the state of historical Mets Hayk‘, and Ernjak,[3] the 1st province of Syunik‘, which is the 9th province of the same state, Chahuk,[4] the 2nd province, as well as Shahur (Shahur Valley[5]), the 22nd province of Ayrarat, which is the 15th province, thus, strongly experienced and shared in common political, spiritual-cultural life of the city of Nakhichevan, the center of Nakhichevan Province over centuries.

Therefore, by the Nakhichevan Region, we mean all four provinces, Goght‘n, Ernjak, Chahuk, and Sharur of Nakhchavan of Historical Armenia, as noted above. Their territories extend upon the valleys and mountainous regions on the left-hand coast of the Araks River, which is surrounded by mountainous chains of Zangezur and Vayk‘. Since Vaspurakan, Syunik‘ and Ayrarat were provinces of the Middle World (central territories) of Historical Armenia, therefore the territory of Nakhichevan, too, was regarded as a Middle World (central) territory of Armenia.[6]

Question 2. When and under what political conditions did the Armenian Arshakuni Dynasty lay the solid foundation of the Armenian national script, literacy, and literature?

Answer 2. The military alliance of Christian Rome and Zoroastrian (Mazdaian) Persia eliminated the 600-year state of Mets Hayk‘in 387. As a result, one-fifths of Mets Hayk‘ passed to Rome, and four-fifths were subject to Persia. Whereas in 395, the Roman Empire was divided into two parts-Western Roman Empire (the capital was Rome), and Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire with the capital, Byzantion or Constantinople.

Rome passed the lands that made up the one-fifths of Mets Hayk‘, which had fallen apart in 387, to Byzantium, an empire that had to legitimately take the control of the territories in 395. In the meantime, the Byzantine Empire was engaged in another war alongside Persia until 422, when, in the end, the Persian-Byzantine Peace Treaty was concluded.[7] In 428, Persia eliminated the Armenian Arshakuni Dynasty that still had power upon the lands of Mets Hayk‘ subject to Persia, changing it into a big administrative-territorial unit, Armenian marzapanut‘yun.

Mesrop Mashtots‘, originally from the village of Hats‘ekats‘of the province of Taron, who was very skilled in the Persian, Assyrian, and Greek languages was a secretary at the royal court of the Armenian Arshakuni Kingdom that was about to collapse under destructive military-political conditions previously mentioned, under the rule of Khosrov III, King of Armenia in 396-399. Sahak I Parthew (387-439), the son of Nerses I Parthew (353-373), the Catholicos of All Armenians, was elected as a Catholicos of All Armenians in 387.

In this period, Vramshapuh, King of Armenia known for his wisdom, reigned the Armenian Arhsakuni Kingdom in 389-414. Mashtots‘left his political-royal office of secretary and was ordered as a spiritually celebrated vardapet (archimandrite) and initiated the propaganda movement of Christianity at the province of Goght‘n of historical Nakhichevan, where Goght‘an gusans (troubadour) enjoyed widespread popularity. It is the province of Goght‘an where Mashots‘sought to create the Armenian alphabet and literature of historical importance.

Moreover, he left Goght‘n, came to Vagharshapat, and proposed his vision to Sahak Parthew, Armenian Catholicos, and Vrampashapuh, Armenian King. The Armenian royal court and Catholocosate approved Mashtots‘’idea and, thus, he created the Armenian alphabet, schools, and literature in 406. After those events, Mashtots‘ returned to the province of Goght‘n again and immediately started teaching the Armenian alphabet, literacy, and literature, keeping establishing Armenian schools in the province of Goght‘n.[8]

Historian Leo stated: ‘Goght‘nastan (Goght‘n Land) is a variety of Goght‘n and Goght‘an, which borders upon the province of Syunik‘(now Agulis and the nearby territories). Goght‘nastan was a province well known for abundant wine, and the bardic songs were common among inhabitants. The first successes of the Christian movement achieved here.

The city of Salar is mentioned in it. In the Middle Ages, the merchantry was popular in historical places, among them was the region of Agulis, the village of Ort‘vat or Ordvat (renamed Ordupad), the village of Vanand or the town of Jugha.’[9] Reflecting upon the Armenian alphabet, schools, and literature Mashtots‘ established in Goght‘n, we may believe that the center (cradle) of the enlightening greatest event was the province of Ayrarat with its capital, Vagharshapat. Mashtots‘established Armenian scriptoria and monasteries in Goght‘n.

Shabat‘, a prince of Goght‘n, and his son Gyut and other prominent individuals supported him in achieving his goal. The toponym of the village of historical Mesropavan (Masrewan) at the province of Goght‘n is associated with Mashtots‘, who lived here for about 17 years. St. Grigor Church (also known as St. Mashtots‘ Church) was built in the 5th century in Mesropavan, which was built by Shabat‘, a prince of Goght‘n in 456. The St. Mashtots‘Church was successively renovated in the 15th, 17th, and 19th centuries.[10]

Koryun, the Armenian historiographer of the 5th century, believes that Mashtots‘established the Armenian schools and scriptoria at the province of Goght‘n, Syunik‘.[11] Laying a solid foundation for the Armenian alphabet, schools, and literature throughout the territories of Armenia, he also invented alphabets (letters) for Georgians[12] and Caucasian Albanians.[13] Moreover, MM 7117 was found in the Matenadaran of Ejmiatsin in 1937, which is written in the Caucasian Albanian letters invented by Mashtots‘; it is now kept at the Mashtots‘Matenadaran.[14]

Question 3. What was the administrative-territorial status of the territory of historical Nakhichevan in 1555 and 1639 between Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Persia after the division of Armenia?

Answer 3. According to the treaty concluded between the states in Amasia, Pontus in 1555, the demarcation line in Armenia passed through the Akhuryan River (Western Arp‘ach‘ya), Armenian Chains (Aghri-Dagh), Kotur and Zagrush Mountains.

The Armenian lands lying on the border to the west passed to Ottoman Turkey and were called Turko-Armenia or Western Armenia, and the Armenian lands on the east were given to Safavid Persia and were called ‘Persiarmenia’ or ‘Eastern Armenia.’ The khanates of Erevan, Nakhichevan, and Karabakh were formed in Eastern Armenia, based on the common administrative-political system in Persia, and Lori-P‘ambak and Borch‘alu were annexed to the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti under the dominion of Safavid Persia, which, partly, was authorized more than the khanate. In the 16th-18th centuries, almost all the northern-eastern part of the Armenian Plateau was commonly called by the toponym ‘Karabakh.’

In a broad sense, it bordered the valley of the Kur River on the north and Araks Valley on the south. From the historical perspective, these borders encompassed Kharabakh, which corresponded to a part of the province of Utik‘ in the state of Mets Hayk‘, including all the territories of the province of Arts‘akh and the province of Goght‘n in Vaspurakan, which is an integral part of the territory of Nakhichevan.

This Karabakh was a giant mountain stronghold for the barbaric, ferocious horde of nomadic tribes that used to rush along the Ararat Valley from the east. The nomadic horde collided with the mountain mass of Karabakh, and having been crashed, came back. Karabakh, previously mentioned in a broad realm, had the following geographical and natural borders in the 16th-18th centuries.

On the north, we enter Karabakh from the borders of Gyanja to the Valley of K‘yurak River, where the province of Gulistan was located. Gulistan was then regarded as a region of Shahumyan, and a sub-region of Getashen. It included the province of Jraberd, which was then called the ‘Martakert Region.’ The route from Getashen used to lead to the valley of the Tartar River.

The valley of Khach‘enaget was near the valley of the T‘art‘ar River on the south, where the province of Khach‘en overlaps the Karkar River. The province of Varanda and the small river of K‘ondalanch‘ay originate from there. The province of Dizak (basically known as the region of Hadrut‘) was located nearby, which covered the Araks Valley. Stretching over the southwards, it reaches the Hagara River.

The historical province of Zangezur was originally located there. The province of Sisian spread through upper and middle courses of the Vorotan River, and from there, to the southeast. The provinces of Meghri and Agulis are situated in the Araks Valley near the province of Kapan, which is located in the valley of Ōkhch‘i River.[15] Nakhichevan with its nearby provinces was called ‘T‘aman’, and ‘Nakhichevan’, which embrace Nakhchvan (Nakhch‘van), Chahuk (Shahbuz, Ernjak (Alanjik), Goght‘n (Azad-Jiran), Vayots‘Jor (Dare ye Ĕlegis), and Tsghuk (Sisajan), and as an individual olka (region), which was subject to Atropatene (Atrpatakan) and Tabriz until the beginning of the 17th century. Whereas since the 17th century all these provinces have come under the control of the beylerbey (military ordinariate of Erevan) of Ch‘ukhuri-Sadi.[16]

Since 1828, the province of Sharur did not enter the khanate of Nakhichevan until March 16, 1921, when the Russian-Turkish Treaty was concluded. The 17th-century Erevan’s beylerbey includes Ghap‘an, Jugha, Sisian, Erevan, Ghrěkh-bulagh (now Kotayk‘), Aghstafa, Aparan, Tmanis, Ayget‘, Jilder, Inje, Tabak‘-Melik‘, Sashat‘, Skarzhel, Zarzibil, Skabus, K‘eztagh, and other provinces. Famous cities and strongholds, Nakhichevan, Ordubad, Erevan, Karabakh, Shink‘ar, Gyanja, Shamkor, Partaw (Barda), Belagan, Bayazet, Maku, Saghasberd, Tiflis, and Jilder were located in the provinces.[17]

The Armenian princes of Eastern Armenia came under the control of Safavid Persia in the 17th century. Since that period, they have been granted the title malik al-umara, which is a Semitic word, meaning king.[18] The Armenian meliks and Georgian kings (valin) of Kartli-Khaghet were appointed by the Persian Shahs’ permissions. The Armenian meliks of the Armenian khanate (Nakhichevan’s khanate) were, too, assigned by a sardar, which implies that the meliks of Nakhichevan khanate were dependent on the military ordinariate of Erevan, which, as a rule, assigned official responsibilities to them.[19]

The sardars were identified with ‘the Lord of Lords of Erevan’ in the shah’s edicts.[20] Kowalenski, a representative of Russia, stated about the Armenian meliks of the 18th century in Caucasia as follows: ‘After the fall of the Armenian Kingdom, the Armenians have retained the rights to their properties up until the modern periods, since the ancient times.’[21]

Question 4. What was the status of the territory of Nakhichevan from February 10, 1828, to May 26, 1918, when the legislative body was self-eliminated?

Answer 4. On October 1, 1827, after the occupation of Erevan, General-Adjutant I.F. Paskewich founded ‘a temporary administration’ in the common territory of Erevan and Nakhichevan on October 6, 1827. He was granted the title of ‘Count of Erevan’s khanate’, as noted above.

The temporary administration consisted of 3 persons:

Krasowski, the commander of the Russian troops, general-lieutenant, and the president of the administration. He was in Armenia in that period.
Nerses Ashtarakets‘i, a famous representative of the Armenian people.
Borodin, lieutenant-colonel, commandant of the stronghold of Erevan.

At the end of 1827, Nikolas I, the Emperor of the Russian Empire, ordered to establish a permanent body to govern the khanates of Erevan and Nakhichevan, which should have been headed by Paskewich. It consists of 5 members; 3 of them, thus, were Russian officials, and one of them was an Armenian, and the other one was a prominent Muslim. The Armenian Oblast (marz) was formed based on the territories of Erevan and Nakhichevan, by the Petersburg Edict issued on March 21, 1828 (after 39 days, when the Turkmenchai Treaty was concluded), which were already regarded as former khanates. This, however, led to the rapid elimination of the body.

According to Article III of the Turkmenchai Treaty concluded on February 10 at Turkmenchai, Persia handed over to Russia ‘the Erevan Khanate as the perfect owner of the property [that extended] on this or that sides of the Araks River, and Nakhichevan Khanate.’[22] General-mayor A. Chavchavadze was appointed as a governor of the newly-formed Armenian Oblast. Behbudov, however, replaced him in 1830. 4 okrugs (provinces run by police), Erevan, Sharur, Sardarapat, and Surmalu were integral parts of the Erevan Province in the Armenian Oblast. The Nakhichevan Province consisted of 2 okrugs-Nakhichevan and Ordubad.

The center of the Armenian Oblast was the city of Erevan. In 1833, a Russian eagle with two heads and the crown alongside the image of Masis, the Armenian Royal crown, and Mother Cathedral of Ejmiatsin were depicted on the coat of arms of the Armenian Oblast. In 1829, Transcaucasia was divided into 6 different regimes; among them was the province, as an administrative-territorial unit. The Armenian Oblast (with Erevan Province and Nakhichevan Province) did not change.[23]

There were 3 cities in the Armenian Oblasts-Erevan, Nakhichevan, and Ordubad.

On April 10, 1840, Transcaucasia divided the Russian authorities into Vira-Emeret Province, and Caspian Province (special military-okrug administration). All the former 6 regimes were eliminated. Among them was also the Armenian Oblast. The provinces, Erevan and Nakhichevan of this Oblast, entered, individually, into the Vira-Emeret Province. It lasted up to 10 years.

In 1844, Caucasia changed into the military ordinariate of the Russian Empire. On December 14, 1846, Transcaucasia was divided into 4 provinces, Tiflis, Khutaisi, Shamakh, and Derbend. The territories of the former Armenian Oblast (Erevan Province and Nakhichevan Province) were incorporated into Tiflis Province. Aleksandrapol Region was in the Tiflis Province, which involved the regions, Shoragyal (Eastern Shirak), P‘ambak, and Akhalk‘alak‘. On June 9, 1849, the Erevan Province was formed as stated in the Imperial Edict.

The law was put into effect on January 1, 1850. Erevan was the center of the province. The regions, Erevan, Nakhichevan, Ordubad, New Bayazet, and Aleksandrapol were annexed to the Erevan Province, whereas the Akhalkalak Region seceded from Aleksandrapol Region, joining the Tiflis Province. Lori seceded from Aleksandrapol and was annexed to the Tiflis Province in 1862. In 1867, the Ordubad Region of the Erevan Province was eliminated, and its territory joined the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan Province. In 1867, Ejmiatsin Region was established based on the regions split inside the Erevan Province.

Thus, Erevan Province with its changes of 1867 had 5 regions-Erevan, Nakhichevan, Aleksandrapol, and New Bayazet. In 1847, new administrative-territorial changes occurred inside the Erevan Province. Its territory is split into 7 regions instead of 5 regions: Erevan, Nakhichevan, Aleksandrapol, Ejmiatsin, New Bayazet, Sharur Daragyaz, and Surmalu. Furthermore, Sharur-Daralagyaz Region was formed based on the parts of Erevan and Nakhichevan, and Surmalu Region was established based on the parts of the regions of Ejmiatsin. With such a territorial administration, Erevan Province remained almost without any changes until May 28, 1918, when the Republic of Armenia was created.[24]

On May 28, 1918, the Armenian National Council in Tiflis made the following statement (an edict was issued on May 30): ‘The Armenian National Council declares itself the supreme and the only authority of the Armenian regions in response to the abolition of the conflict of the political territorial integrity of Transcaucasia and the declaration of the independence of Georgia and Azerbaijan.

For some weighty reasons, leaving aside the plan of forming Armenian national government in upcoming days, the Armenian Council temporarily assumes all the duties of the political and administration lead of the Armenian regions.’[25] From the first day of the establishment, the RA declared that also the supreme and only authority of the Erevan Province, and, in our case, of the Armenian Nakhichevan Region, thus, will run its political and administrative government.

Question 5. What fate was expected for the Nakhichevan Region of the RA, according to the agreement signed between RSFSR and RA at Erevan, on December 2, 1920?

Answer 5. On December 2, 1920, RSFSR and RA signed an agreement in Erevan, which stated: ‘On December 2, 1920, on the one hand, the plenipotentiary member of RSFSR, Legran, in the presence of the Russian Soviet Government, and on the other hand, adjutants, Dro and Terteryan, in the presence of Government of the Republic of Armenia, authorized also by Russian Soviet Communist Party and Central Committee, signed an agreement about the following:

Armenia is declared the independent Soviet Socialist Republic

Before the Conference of the Councils of Armenia is summoned, a temporary Military-revolutionary Committee is formed which will acquire the total power in Armenia

The government of Soviet Russia accepts that the Erevan Province with all the regions, and a part of Kars Province, where the rail transport system will be military administrated from Jajur railway station to the Araks railway station, Zangezur Region of Gandzak Province, and a part of Ghazakh Region by the agreement that was signed on August 10, and those parts of Tiflis Province, which are governed by Armenian authorities until September 28, 1920, indisputably, enter into the administration of Armenian SSR

The Armenian military elite will not be responsible for the actions they will take inside the Armenian army until Armenia will be declared a Soviet republic

The members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and other Socialist Party must not be persecuted for supporting the party as a member, and for being involved in the disputes of the opposition party, and for the actions that might be taken before Armenia will be declared a Soviet republic

The Military-revolutionary Committee consists of 5 members appointed by the Communist Party and two members from the Left-wing Faction of Armenian Revolutionary Federation, agreeing with the Communist Party

The Russian Soviet government will pursue a policy of directly centralizing required military forces in defense of Armenian SSR

After an agreement is signed, the government of the Republic of Armenia will resign. Before the Revolutionary Committee will come to power, the military leadership will, temporarily, take the lead of the country, which will be headed by Dro. RSFSR appoints Adjutant Silin as a defense attaché (commissar) of the military leadership of Armenia
Two leaders were suggested:

Legran, a plenipotentiary member of RSFSR

Dro and Terteryan, authorized by the government of the Republic of Armenia’[26] The agreement was legally validated on December 2, 1920, at 4:00 pm (on December 2, after the afternoon, at 16:00[27]). According to Article III of the Erevan Treaty, ‘The government of Soviet Russia recognizes that the Erevan Province with all the regions indisputably enters into the administration of Armenian SSR…’ As stated by the law drafted by the Russian Empire on June 9, 1849, which was validated on January 1, 1850, Erevan Province of Caucasian military ordinariate included Erevan, Nakhichevan, Ordubad, Aleksandrapol, and New Bayazet.[28] In 1867, the Ordubad Region of Erevan Province was eliminated, and its territory was annexed to the Nakhichevan Region of Erevan Province.

The Ejmiatsin Region was established inside the Erevan Province in 1867. Thus, in 1867, the Erevan Province consisted of regions, Erevan, Nakhichevan, Aleksandrapol, New Bayazet, and Ejmiatsin.[29] In 1874, as a result of the division of regions of Erevan Province, Sharur-Daragyalaz Region was founded based on a part of Nakhichevan Region, and Surmalu Region was formed from the region administrated by police of Surmalu at Ejmiatsin Region, which lied between the Araks River and the Armenian Chains.

Thus, in 1847, the Erevan Province of Caucasian military ordinariate of the Russian Empire had 7 regions of Erevan, Nakhichevan, Sharur-Daralagyaz, Alkesandrapol, New Bayazet, Ejmiatsin, and Surmalu.[30] Erevan Province with 7 regions kept its status ongoing until May 28, 1918, when the Republic of Armenia was created, and formed its fundamental part and heart of the territory. In our cases, regions, Nakhichevan and Sharur-Daralagyaz entered into the administration of the Republic of Armenia.

And, now, according to Article III of the Russian-Armenian agreement mentioned previously, which was concluded on December 2, 1920, ‘The Russian Soviet government recognizes that Erevan Province with all the regions indisputably enter into the territorial administration of Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia…’, and according to the law, which was validated by the Russian Empire in 1847, all the regions of Caucasian military ordinariate of the Russian Empire were Erevan, Nakhichevan, Sharur-Daragyaz, Aleksandrapol, New Bayazet, Ejmiatsin, and Surmalu.[31]

Therefore, as stated in the Russian-Armenian agreement concluded in Erevan of Caucasian military ordinariate of the Russian Empire, on December 2, 1920, all the provinces mentioned previously and particularly Nakhichevan Region and Sharur-Daralagyaz Region were recognized as a part of newly-formed Soviet Socialist Armenia.

Additionally, according to the Russian-Armenian agreement of December 2, 1920, a part of Kars Province, will militarily administrate the rail transport system, from Jajur station to the Araks station, Zangezur Region of Gandzak Province, and a part of Ghazakh Region within the legal limits of the agreement of August 10, and those parts of Tiflis Province, which were under the control of Armenia until September 28, 1920.’ Although the RA was eliminated on December 2, 1920, involuntarily handing over its government to Armenian SSR, which should, legitimately, assume all the duties.

Nevertheless, by the Russian-Armenian agreement, it could assume the governmental obligations and duties of Nakhichevan, Sharur-Daralagyaz, and Zangezur as well, with privileges and dignity. Armenian SSR entered into the historical arena thanks to the agreement between RSFSR and RA concluded in Erevan, on December 2, 1920, with territories, which were indisputably recognized as parts of Armenian SSR, as noted above, including Nakhichevan, Sharur-Daralagyaz, and Zangezur.

Question 6. Did RSFSR do the obligations, according to Article XV of the Russian-Turkish Treaty concluded in Moscow on March 16, 1921, to oblige the Armenian SSR by the Articles on the Armenian Question?

Answer 6. The RSFSR signed the Russian-Turkish Treaty on March 16, 1921, whereas the Armenian SSR did not participate in it. The RSFRS took the responsibility to oblige Armenian SSR by the Articles of the treaty on the Armenian Question, and the territory of Aleksandrapol that was the part of Armenian SSR continued staying militarized by the Turkish Land Forces.[32] Although the Armenian SSR was an ‘independent state’, practically was under the RSFSR’s pressure, however, the Armenian SSR was not empowered to make some amendments in the Articles, which were incorporated into the Treaty of Moscow, around the issue of Nakhichevan and Armenians’ well-being.

The report of the delegations of the republics under the control of Transcaucasia at the council summoned on May 7, 1921, reveals that the negotiations with Turkey were based on the treaty concluded in Moscow on March 16.[33] The treaty that was called for peace was concluded on the one hand, between Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR, and on the other hand, between Turkey with the participation of RSFSR in Kars, on October 13, 1921. According to Article V, ‘the Turkish Government and the Soviet Governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan are agreed that the Nakhichevan Region, within the limits specified by Annex III to the present Treaty, constitutes an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan.’[34]

Compared to Article III of the Treaty of Moscow, Article V of the Treaty of Kars was an advanced version, since here Azerbaijan was not restricted to allot the territory to a third state. Apparently, they realized that Azerbaijan could hand over the control of Nakhichevan to RSFSR or Turkey as well when particularly Turkey was ready and is still seeking to take the control. Nevertheless, the Treaty of Moscow and the Treaty of Kars were not effective for Turkey to annex Nakhichevan to its territories. However, RSFSR contributed to Turkey to forcedly secede Sharur-Nakhichevan from Armenia and to put under the protection of Azerbaijan somehow. Whether what policy of control Azerbaijan could plan for Nakhichevan, we will show in the answers to the next questions. Additionally, the Treaty of Moscow was ratified on September 22, 1921, in Kars,[35] and the Treaty of Kars was put into effect on September 11, 1922, in Erevan.[36]

Question 7. What political statuses Nakhichevan had after the Treaty of Kars was concluded on October 13, 1921, up until January 19, 1990, when the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan seceded from the USSR, declaring its independence.

Answer 7. Armenian SSR and Azerbaijan SSR were independent states de jure before the SSSR was formed on December 30, 1922. Those states entered into SSSR as unitary republics, which allotted important parts of their sovereignty and reserved the legal rights to central authorities of SSSR.

Azerbaijan SSR entered into USSR, according to Article III of the Treaty of Moscow, ‘in the status of a legal representative of Nakhichevan Region as an autonomous territory, and ‘as a legislative sponsor’, according to Article V of Treaty of Kars. In February of 1923, however, violating the treaties noted above, the 3rd Nakhichevan Referendum of Soviets recognized the autonomous territory of Nakhichevan as a constituent part of Azerbaijan SSR. On June 16, 1923, the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan delivered a decision to immediately include Nakhichevan into the administration of Azerbaijan SSR. However, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey protested against the decision (16.04.1923) of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan about the government of RSFSR, claiming that the decision is regarded as a direct infringement of the Russian-Turkish Treaty concluded in Moscow in 1921, and of Turko-Transcaucasia Treaty signed on October 13, 1921, in Kars.[37]

Thus, the protest report stated: ‘As my government indicated, I am authorized to draw RSFSR’s government attention to the issue that Turkey does not legally recognize this annexation as this forced attachment is regarded as an open infringement of the treaties noted above, and Turkey certainly protest against the complete annexation of the territory.’[38] Based on the protest of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey, the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan had to reconsider its decision, and made a new decision on February 9, 1924, which stated: ‘The territory of Nakhichevan re-form the Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan, under the protection of Azerbaijan SSR.’[39]

Nakhichevan, then, acquired the status of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a constituent part of Azerbaijan SSR with the connivance of internal Soviet legislation, which was validated in the Constitution of 1936, as well as in further constitutions. In 1966, the Middle East and Law Departments of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of USSR ‘find it impolitic to take some steps to change the status of Autonomous Soviet Socialist of Nakhichevan.’[40]Nakhichevan retained such a paradoxical status up until January 19, 1990, and seceded from USSR, declaring its dependence.

Question 8. What kind of spiritual cultural role the territory of Nakhichevan did play in the life of the Armenian people?

Answer 8. The territories of Nakhichevan are one of the Armenian cultural cradles. The Goght‘an Province is not only famous as a motherland of Armenian songs and music but also a divine place, where Mesrop Mashtots‘ came up with the idea to create the Armenian national alphabet, scripts, schools, and literature.

The place, where the people handed down the literature by word of mouth accompanied with the music of bambirs (Armenian national musical instrument) over centuries, the same songs of troubadours in the same place became the reason to create Armenian letters and write literature in the Armenian script.

Mashtots‘ founded here the first scriptoria, pursuing a deeper Armenization policy.[41]Armenian architectural buildings, strongholds, bridges, caravansary, churches, chapels, khach‘k‘ars, and other monuments in the territory of Nakhichevan are a museum in the open sky. St. Thomas Monastery, St. Christopher Church, and the Church of the Holy Mother of God have been known since the 4th century.

These Churches were built in the town of Agulis of Goght‘an Province.[42] St. Karapet Monastery of the region of Aprakunik‘of Erjank Province,[43]the 5th-century St. Nshan Church in the village of Bist-Bust- Pust of Goght‘an Province,[44] St. Thomas Monastery[45] built in the village of Vanand of Goght‘an Province in the 5th century, Monastery of Holy Mother God of Norashen of the 10th century,[46] Karmir Monastery of Astapat of the 8th century,[47] Holy Trinity Church of Nakhichevan[48] of the 6th century, present the territories, where the Arabs burned down Armenian nakharars in 706[49]; the Azeris destroyed this church in 1925.

There are thousands of Armenian churches of the 10th -19th centuries in the territories of Nakhichevan, which, Azeris, sadly, either destroyed or demolished, or ruined, razed to the ground, and, now, the churches are abolished.[50] Moreover, the territory of Nakhichevan is famous for Ordubad, Ernjak, Adba-Berd, Chahuk, Shahapunik‘, and other strongholds.[51] The territory of Nakhichevan is rich in khach‘k‘ars, about which N. Mar wrote: ‘The monuments of ancestors, absolutely, characterizing the Armenian art…[represent] the fourth stage of evolutions of the ancient sculptural art of Armenia.

The first stage of evolution is noticed in colossal sculptural fishes found in Geghama Mountains, in the vishaps (dragons) erected in the 4th -5th thousands ago, BC, the second stage of evolution is spotted in columns or monuments of Kingdom of Van, the third stage of evolution is revealed on the pillars with the sculptural decoration of early Christianity, which were sculpted up to the 10th century, and, then, khach‘k‘ars.[52]

The cemetery of the city of Old Julfa at historical Ernjak Province enjoyed world popularity in the 9th-19th centuries. The cemetery was also surmounted by 10000 khach‘kars,[53] which were vandalized and moved to other places by Azerbaijani authorities in 1997-2000, therefore it turned into a deserted place.

‘In November 2020, the British The Guardian wrote about Azerbaijan’s campaign of comprehensive ‘cultural cleansing’ in Nakhichevan: Satellite imagery, extensive documentary evidence, and personal accounts showed that 89 churches, 5840 khach‘kars, and 22000 tombstones were destroyed between 1997 and 2006, including the medieval necropolis of Julfa, the largest ancient Armenian cemetery in the world. The Azerbaijani response has consistently been to simply deny that Armenians had ever lived in the region.’[54]

Agulis, Aprakunis, Shorot‘, Norashen (Norakert), Old Julfa, K‘rna, Nakhichevan, Astapat, Kuk‘i, Ōtsop‘ and other settlements with their monasteries, scriptoria, and other schools played a crucial role in the history of scribal art of the Armenian people, where hundreds of manuscript books were produced and held at the Mashtots‘ Matenadaran of Ancient Manuscripts of Erevan.[55]

Many celebrated figures, who were originally from Nakhichevan, initiated great spiritual, academic, educational, military art, state, and political movements. Among them are Hakob IV, Catholicos of All Armenians (1655-1680),[56] Aleksandr I of Julfa, Catholiocos of All Armenians (1706-1714),[57] Ghazar I of Jahuk, Catholicos of All Armenians (1737-1751),[58] Simon vardapet of Julfa (the 17th century),[59] Step‘anos vardapet, an author of the Lamentation of Julfa of the 17th century,[60] Andreas K‘ahana (priest), who condemned the Persian harem and was martyred,[61] Hovhannes vardapet of Julfa, an author of the 17th century,[62] Minas of Julfa, a painter of the 17th century,[63] Hovhannes of Maku, an author of the Sobbing over Julfa of the 17th century,[64] Davit‘ of Gegham, an author of the Lamentation of Julfa of the 17th century,[65] Khach‘atur abegha (monk) of Julfa of the 18th century,[66] Petros di Sargis of Gilanents‘, an author of the Chronology of the 18th century, originally from Julfa,[67] Zak‘aria of Agulis, an author of the Recollection of the 18th century,[68] Mkrtich‘ of Ernjak, a vardapet of the 18th century,[69] Poghos bishop of Nakhichevan of the 18th century,[70] Petros K‘alant‘aryan, a prominent physician of the 18th century, originally from Julfa,[71] and others. In the 16th-18th centuries, both in Julfa and Europe, founders of Armenian printing houses and figures, who have selflessly devoted themselves to this great cultural activity, Gaspar Sahratyan of Julfa,[72] Nahapet Gulnazaryan of Agulis,[73] Nazar of Julfa,[74] Mathew of Vanand Hovhannisyan,[75] Ghukas of Vanand Nurinjanyan,[76] Grigor Khaldaryan of Julfa,[77] and others were well-known.

Garegin Nzhdeh, an Armenian great ideologist, the national figure of the liberation movement, commander, statesman, was born on January 1, 1886, in the village of Kznut‘of the Nakhichevan Region and passed away on December 21, 1955.[78] Although Turk-Tartars slaughterers massacred half of the Armenian population in Nakhichevan in the 20th century, and the other half was deported from the historical motherland, nevertheless, many figures well-known in all the domains descend from Nakhichevan. It is known that the ancestors of the world-famous composer, Aram Khach‘atryan was from Goght‘an Region by origin. Hakob Davt‘yan, a Soviet spy and diplomat, Hayk Hovakimyan, a Soviet spy and general-mayor of national security policy, Lewon Step‘anyan, a Soviet and Armenian military and political figure, general-mayor, Step‘an Step‘anyan, a hero of the WWI, Geworg Ter-Gasparyan, a Soviet military figure, general-lieutenant, Suren Gharakhanyan, Doctor of Technical Science, academician, and others are originally from the territories of Nakhichevan.

Question 9. What is the demographic image of the territory of Nakhichevan, from the ancient times up to now?

Answer 9. The demographic survey on February 10, 1828, shows that the number of the Armenians of Erevan and Nakhichevan khanates reached 25000 totally, and 5000 of them used to live in the territory of Nakhichevan,[79] whereas, in the two khanates, the number of Muslims and other people, excluding Armenians, brought together, reached 81000.[80]

Of 1111 villages, 732 villages were populated in the khanates of Erevan and Nakhichevan, and the Armenians in all the other villages were deported.[81] Celebrated Historian Leo wrote about the causes of dramatic decrease and conditions in the khanates of Erevan and Nakhichevan, ‘The de-Armeniazation process was forcedly fabricated due to the policy, the sardars of Erevan exerted upon them.’

Since that period, when it has become clear that the Armenians were faithful to Russians and, preferred Russians over Persian rule, the Erevan authorities applied all the invented tools to prevent this dangerous element, and, thus, as a policy, they sought to undermine the Persian rule.

The exploitations, the countless and unbearable taxes were imposed on the Armenians, which forced them to migrate from the country. When the war began in 1826-1827, the Persian army, as historically seen, attacked Armenians, seeking to take revenge, madly killing, plundering, and taking captive. Whereas it was not enough; the government organized the deportation of the Armenians to properly defend the country, chasing the population away, particularly the Armenian population on the other coast of the Araks River.’[82]

On January 10, 1828, judging by the census taken after the Russian-Persian Treaty of Turkemench‘ai, there were 60000-65000 Armenian inhabitants in the Atropatene (Atrpatakan) Province of Persia, of which 35560 people were re-settled in the Armenian Oblast with the capital of Erevan,[83] which was formed from the khanates of Erevan and Nakhichevan by the Russian authorities; as a result, about 10000 Armenians moved to other provinces of Transcasusia. In 1828-1829, 11998 Armenians repatriated from Persia to the Nakhichevan Province of the Armenian Oblast of the Russian Empire, of which 1110 people (265 families) moved to the city of Nakhichevan, and 9543 people (1872 families) moved to 4 mahals of the khanate of Nakhichevan, 182 people (36 families) moved to Ordubad, and 1158 people (214 families) moved to Ordubad Mahal; the people in the city of Ordubad were not enumerated.[84]

According to the census data of 1829-1839, in the Nakhichevan Province of the Armenian Oblast, the Armenian population rapidly increased, totally, making up 41.2 percent of the population.[85] As stated in the Russian-Treaty of Adrianapolis on September 2, 1829, 3663 Armenian families (21591 people) moved from Western Armenia to Transcaucasia, settled in the Erevan Province of the Armenian Oblast, and only 27 people (8 families) in Nakhichevan Provinces of the Armenian Oblast.[86] Thus, as asserted in the Treaty of Turkmenchai concluded on January 10, 1828, and in the Treaty of Aleksandrapol concluded on September 2, 1829, a total of 12025 Armenians (2395 Armenian families) re-settled in Nakhichevan.

In 1832 already, the ethnoreligious demography of the Nakhichevan Provinces of the Armenian Oblast registered 41482 people, of which 41.2 percent (17097 people) were Armenians, and non-Armenians, various Muslim people, and others make up 58.8 percent (24385 people).[87] It is known that the Azerbaijani nation was formed by the constitution of Azerbaijan SSR on March 14, 1937,[88] and the religious-language collision of Tartars of Transcaucasia emerged when the total population census of the USSR was held in 1926.[89]

Therefore, the Muslims of the Nakhichevan Province of the Armenian Oblast that made up 58,8 percent of the total population in 1832, were not fully Tartars of Transcaucasia and Azeris. And former Soviet and post-Soviet authors made an academic big mistake, who ‘hurried’ to call the chaotic mass of the Islam that made up 58,8 percent of the total population of the distant Nakhichevan Province of 1832, calling either ‘Tartars of Transcaucasia (Tartars) or ‘Azeris’, not considering the facts noted above.

Moreover, an academic examination cannot catch one more mistake that comes from that previous mistake, hypothesizing (or deducting), that the majority, which is 58,8 percent of the total population of the Nakhichevan Province in 1832 were Tartars of Transcaucasia (Tartars), or, let alone, Azeris. Such anti-academic tools applied to go politically far with the tendency towards Azerbaijan pursue the policy of justifying the seizing of the Armenian Nakhichevan by Azerbaijan, and now it seeks to deport all Armenians from the territory of Nakhichevan.

It should be emphasized that in 1832 the inhabitants that made up 58,8 percent of the total population of the Nakhichevan Province of the Armenian Oblast in the Russian Empire were not Iranian speaking Tartars of Transcaucasia (Tartars) or Azeris, but Muslims, Kurds, Persians, then, Turkish-speaking nomadic people, tribes, and small nations.

Thus, among them are the Kiangrli nation, the Yuri nation, the Tuva (Kyzyl) nation, the Karabeklar nation, the Chagatai nation, the Karak nation, the Qajar nation, the Kurdlar nation, the Alikhan nation, the Kurdmax Mud nation, the Alien nation, the Barkyush nation, the Shabanli nation, the Panaghli nation, and others.[90]

And these national, tribal, religious communities taken individually shaped minorities with the tiny percentage of the general population of the Nakhichevan Province in 1832, whereas the Armenian population that made up 41,2 percent (17097 people) at that time, formed a relative majority of the population of the Nakhichevan Province.

Even if we enumerate the Turkic nomadic tribe, Tarakama, which consists of 7483 people as a single community in that province, it will not make any considerable changes, since the Armenians are still distinguished as the relative majority of the general population in the Nakhichevan Province in 1832.

We should not disregard that according to the data survey of 1832, the certain majority, which makes up 55,8 percent[91]of the population of Nakhichevan Mahals of the Nakhichevan Province of the Armenian Oblast, and the elite of the Mahals of Agulis that made up 81,6 percent (more than two-thirds),[92] were Armenians.

The Armenians represented 48,4 percent[93] of the marked majority of the population in the Alinja Mahal, 43,4 percent of Mavazi Khatun Mahal,[94] 40,8 percent of Daragyalaz Mahal,[95] 47,8 percent of Bilavi Mahal,[96] 43,4 percent of Chananab,[97] 34,5 percent of Ordubad Mahal,[98] 33,4 percent of Nakhichevan.[99] The Armenians represented a minority in the Dastin Mahal (18,4 percent),[100] Hok Mahal (Khok, 14 percent),[101] and the city of Ordubad (5,3 percent).[102]

In 1830, the Armenian Oblast of the Russian Empire had 162202 people and 737 villages, of which 116147 people and 508 villages were in the Erevan Province, 33992 people and 179 villages were located in the Nakhichevan Province, 12064 people and 50 villages were under the control of the Ordubad Okrug.

The Gender Studies show that the men made up 53,1 percent of the population in the Erevan Province, 43,8 percent in the Nakhichevan Province, 34,6 percent in the Ordubad Okrug. 503 percent of the masculine population in all 31193 dioceses of the Armenian Okrug were Armenians, 49,7 percent were non-Armenians-Iranian-speaking and Turkic various Muslim tribes, Turkish-speaking Romas, and others.[103] I. Shopen’s data of 1831-1932 show that 70 percent of the total population of the Armenian Okrug lived in Erevan, 18,6 percent in the provinces of Nakhichevan, and 4,7 percent in the Ordubard Okrug.[104] In 1832 specifically, the Armenian Okrug had 164450 people, of which 82377 people (50,1 percent) were Armenians, and 82073 people (49.9 percent) were representatives of other nationalities. Besides, 65280 people (43,8 percent) of 115150 people (56,7 percent) of the Nakhichevan Province were Armenians, 49875 people (43,3 percent) were of other nationalities.[105] 13369 people (43.8 percent) of the 30507 population of Nakhichevan Province were Armenians, and 17138 people (56.2 percent) were of other nationalities.[106] 3728 people (34,1 percent) of the 10975 population of the Ordubad Okrug of the Armenian Oblast were Armenians, and 7427 people (65,9 percent) were non-Armenians.[107] Physical survival was not an issue for the Armenians within the borders of the Russian Empire, the religious discrimination and persecutions were abolished, and the Armenians did not pay Church taxes. Russia provided social-economic and educational-cultural favorable conditions for the natural growth of Armenians. Already in 1873, the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan Province had 61100 people, and 84000 people in 1886, 100800 people in 1897, 135600 people in 1913.[108]

In 1886, the population of the Erevan Province, the integral part of which was the Nakhichevan Region made up 56, 04 percent, and 53, 2 percent in 1897, and 59,5 percent in 1913 were Armenians.[109] In 1886, the Armenians made up 29,4 percent of the population in the city of Nakhichevan, 25,7 percent in 1897, 29,5 percent in 1914, 29,8 percent in 1916.[110]

In the 19th century, the Armenian population of the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan Province doubled, and the population of all the Muslims brought together, grew 2.6 times.[111] The population census of the Islamic community (total 7300) of 29 nomadic peoples played an essential role in the rapid growth of Muslims.[112] Even Turkic Romas were taken in the census of the Muslim society.

This factor mechanically decreased the relative density of the Armenian population of the total 41,2 percent to 34,4 percent in the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan Province, and the relative destiny of all the Muslims brought together increased from 58,8 percent to 63,7 percent.[113] Although, in 1916, the Armenians made up 40 percent of the population in the Nakhichevan Region.[114]

Thus, the demographic survey on 1916, shows that 53900 Armenians made up 40 percent of the populations of the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan Province that was practically regarded as the relative majority of the total population of that region, since neither Kurds nor Persians, nor Turkic Muslim population, as an individual community, small nations, tribes, with their specified data were obviously small, and ‘the Azeris community’ should have been still shaped, and on March 14, 1937, it should have been brought into the historical arena by the constitution of Azerbaijan SSR.[115]

Thus, by the survey of 1916, 53900 Armenians, making up 40 percent of the population of the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan Province, was practically considered the relative majority of the total population of the region, since neither Kurds, nor Persians, and no any individual Turkic Muslim nation, small nations, tribes, which were enumerated, were evidently lesser in number than Armenians, and ‘Azerbaijan community’ should have been still shaped.

And on March 14, 1937, it should have been then brought into the historical area, by the constitution of Azerbaijan SSR, only.[116] The Armenian population of the Nakhichevan Region of the Erevan (Ērivan) Province in the Russian Empire kept dramatically growing, nevertheless, the Ottoman Turkey organized recurrent military occupations at Nakhichevan in 1918, which led to destruction and extermination, as a result, the Armenians of Nakhichevan found the way to migration and almost fully migrated the motherland.

Besides, the Russian-Turkish Peace Treaty[117] concluded in Moscow on March 16, 1921, on the one hand, the Treaties between the Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR concluded on October 13, 1921, and on the other hand, the Treaty of Turkey, and the Peace Treaty concluded in Kars with the participation of RSFSR,[118] constituted that the territory of Nakhichevan should be detached from Armenia, and as an autonomous territory, it should come under the protection (sponsorship) of Azerbaijan SSR.

This, of course, heavily affected and prevented both the local Armenians and the emigrated inhabitants of Nakhichevan from staying or going back to the motherland. And as a result of this strongly negative interconnection of the factors noted above, 53900 Armenians, who already lived in the Nakhichevan Region in 1916, which made up 40 percent of the population,[119] which was the relative majority, decreased 5 times by the demographic data of 1926, making up totally 10,77 percent (11276) of the population.[120]

In 1918-1920, the Armenians of Nakhichevan, who could emigrate from the motherland by barely rescuing their lives, exerted many efforts during the first years of the Soviet Rule to come back to the territory of Nakhichevan, however, the authorities of Azerbaijan and Nakhichevan erected barriers to them.[121] Musabekov, the president of the Council of People’s Commissars of Azerbaijan SSR, told the president of Armenian SSR on June 24, 1922, that ‘the mass ingression of the population to the borders of Azerbaijan’ is prohibited.

In the report of November 18, 1926, the Central Executive Committee of Transcaucasia condemned this policy of Azerbaijan, and thus it stated: ‘Azerbaijan owned the policy of the barrier, and the fact is so essential that the policy of the barrier is applied on its part in the total territories of the autonomous republic, Nakhichevan, where the issue of the emigration gained a more intense nature, and where it, more than anywhere else, requires practical and specific events of regulation.’[122]

The legislative council of the Central Executive Committee of Transcaucasia reported: ‘The real situation of the issue of the emigrants of Azerbaijan is that Azerbaijan, on the whole, rejected the access of the Armenian asylum-seekers who crossed its borders during the Sovietization period…[123]’

On March 11, 1925, Rikov, President of the Councils of Ministers of USSR, who came to Nakhichevan, strictly criticized the authorities of Azerbaijan for that, and some of them were also executed.[124] The Armenians of Nakhichevan encouraged, kept lodging a protest to central bodies of the USSR.

On March 21, 1925, a collective protest letter of the Armenians of Nakhichevan was sent to M. I. Kalini, President of the Central Executive Committee, and Kalini submitted the copy of the letter to the investigation of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan, which does not give a satisfactory solution to the issue.’[125]

On June 26, 1925, the Armenians of Nakhichevan, sent a new complaint letter to Rikov, which, at the last count, was rejected by Azerbaijan, reasoning that they will acquire lands, who, until on April 1, 1925, already moved to Azerbaijan.[126] On December 23, 1925, Azerbaijan rejected even the return of the Armenians of the village of Shakert (of Ghazanch‘i) to native lands.[127]

The return of the Armenians of Nakhichevan was rejected, particularly by the decision of the Central Executive Committee of Nakhichevan on April 26, 1926. Thus, it reasoned: ‘Taking account that the petitioners have been found in Tiflis earlier, and as asserted by the data of the land allocation of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan, and relying on Décret no. 5 of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan, there is a land deficiency.’[128]

Besides, the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan delivered a decision on May 29, 1926, to prohibit the repatriation of the indigenous Armenian population of Nakhichevan, to the territory of Nakhichevan because of the land deficiency,[129] although it was mentioned in the report The Issue of the Immigrants of Transcaucasia Federation of the legislative council of Central Executive Committee of Transcaucasia that if the Republic of Nakhichevan is secured with lands, it gives an objective opportunity to the asylum-seekers to accept them back on principle, as well as to secure them with the lands.[130] Later, this issue remained unsolvable, the reason of which was consistent and wayward anti-Armenian policy exerted by Azerbaijan, which was indisputably sponsored by the Congress of the Bolshevik Authorities; as a result, all the Armenians were deported from the territory of Nakhichevan with the following succession of indexes:

In 1926, the Armenians made up 14,77 percent (11276 people)[131] totally in the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan in 1926, 10,54 percent (13350 people)[132] in 1939, 6,7 percent (9519 people)[133] in 1959, 2,88 percent (5828 people)[134] in 1970, 1,42 percent (3406 people)[135] in 1979, 0,65 percent (1906 people)[136] in 1989, and 17 Armenians used to live in there…1999.[137]

The Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan created on November 17, 1990, consisted of 8 administrative regions:

Babak (the center was Babek (49,81 km2), the population consisted of 66200 members).
Julfa (the center was Julfa (1012 km2), the population had 43000 members).
Kenderli (the center was Kivraz (711,86 km2), the population had 28900 members).
The city of Nakhichevan (the center was Nakhichevan (191,82 km2), the population had 85700 people).

Ordubad (the center was Ordubada (994,88 km2), the population had 46000 people).
Sadarak (the center was Heydarabad (153,49 km2), the population had 14500 people).
Shabuz (the center was Shabuz (838,04 km2), the population had 23400 people).
Sharur (the center was Sgharur (847,35 km2), the population had 106600 people).[138]
In 2009, the ARN (Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan) had 398323 inhabitants, 99,6 percent of which was Azeris.[139] The ARN had a 439800 population of 2015, 99, 6 percent of which was Azeris.[140] The ARN had a 456100 population in 2019, 99 percent of which was Azeris.[141]

Tigran Sahakyan arak29.org Erevan 2021

[1] S. T. Eremyan, Armenia, According to the World Atlas [Arm. orig., Hayastaně ěst ashkharhats‘oyts‘i], Yerevan, AS ASSR Press, 1963, pp. 72; 109; 117.

[2] Ibid., 48; 109; 117.

[3] Ibid., 51; 110;117.

[4] Ibid., 64; 110; 117.

[5] Ibid., 73; 112; 118.

[6] Ibid., 118.

[7] T. Gh. Sahakyan, Of Great Armenia… [Arm. orig., Mets Hayastani…], pp. 64-65.

[8] Leo, Collection of Studies [Arm. orig., Erkeri zhoghovatsu] (hereafter, Collection), vol. 5, Erevan, 1986, pp. 57-60; 66-71; 72-87; 579-580; 581-585; ibid., vol. 1, pp. 158-159; 394-395; 504-510.

[9] [9] Leo, Collection, vol. 1, p. 158.

[10] A. Ayvazyan, The Historic-architectural Monuments of Nakhichevan [Arm. orig., Nakhichevani patmachartarapetakan hushardzannerě] (hereafter, Nakhichevani), pp. 17-18; V. Hakobyan, Dictionary of the Toponyms of Armenian and Adjacent Territories [Arm. orig., Hayastani ew harakits‘ shrjanneri teghanunneri bararan] (hereafter, Dictionary of Toponyms), vol. 1, p. 935.

[11] Koryun, The Life of Mashtots‘ [Arm. orig., Vark‘ Mashtots‘i] (hereafter, The Life), Chs. 13; 14.

[12] Ibid., Chs. 15; 21; M. Khorenats‘i, History of Armenia [Arm. orig., Hayots‘ Patmut‘yun] (hereafter, History), 3. 44; 47; Professor, Doctor Melik‘set‘-bek, Georgian Sources about Armenia and Armenians [Arm. orig., Vrats‘ aghbyurnerě Hayastani ew hayeri masin], vol. 1, Erevan, 1933, p. 180; K. Kekelidze, History of the Georgian Literature [Arm. trans. from Georgian, Vrats‘ grakanut‘yan patmut‘yun], vol. 1, Tiflis, 1923, pp. 28-31; M. Kaghakantvats‘i, History of the Caucasian Albanian Land [Arm. orig., Patmut‘yun aghvanits‘ ashkharhi] (hereafter, History), 3. 23. 267-268.

[13] Koryun, The Life, Chs. 15; 21, Khorenats‘i, History 3. 44; 48; 50; Kaghakantvats‘i, History 3. 23. 267-268.

[14] Koryun, The Life, Chs. 12; 13; 18; Khorenats‘i, History 3.50; History of the Armenian People [Hay zhoghovrdi patmut‘yun], vol. 2, p. 124; H. Ačaryan, Caucasian Alphabet [Arm. orig., Aghvanakan aybubeně], Affiliation Directory of AS ASSR Press, Erevan, 1941, nos. 3-4; Idem., Armenian Scripts [Arm. orig., Haykakan grerě], Erevan, 1968, pp. 216-231; Абраамян А.Г., “Дешифровка надписей Кавказских агван”, Ереван, 1964г; А.Ш.Мнацаканян, “О литературе Кавказской Албании”, Ереван, 1969г; Абуладзе, “К открытию альфавита Кавказских албанцев” (“Известия инст. языка, истории и матеральной культуры им. акад. Марра грузинского филиала АН СССР”, М., 1938г., т. 4; Шанидзе А., “Новооткрытый альфавит Кавказских албанцев и его значение для науки (“Изв. инс яз., ист. и мат. культуры им. академика Марра грузинского филиала АН СССР”), 1938г. т. 4; Шанидзе А., “Язык и письмо Кавказских албанцев” (“Вестник отдела общ. наук АН Груз. ССР”),

Тбилиси, 1960г., № 1; Тревер К., “Очерки по истории и культуре Кавказской Албании IV в. до н.э. – VII в. н.э.”, М.-Л, 1959г; Кан К., “Известия древных греческих и римский писателей о Кавказе”, Тифлис, 1884г.

[15] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 1.9-11.

[16] Ibid., p. 55; ‘Preface’ 12. 479-480.

[17] Ibid. 56; T‘. Kh. Hakobyan, History of Erevan, 1500-1800 [Arm. orig., Erevani patmut‘yun, 1500-1800], Erevan, 1971, p. 140; Adam Olearus, les Voyages en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse, Amsterdam, 1727, t. I, p. 522; Hakobyan, Contour Lines of Historical Geography of Armenia [Arm. orig., Urvagtser Hayastani patmakan ashkharagrut‘yan] (hereafter, Contour Lines], pp. 350-352; 354; 357-358; 360-362; 387.

[18] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 2. 14; Bishop Karapet, Dop‘eank‘ and Melik‘-Shaznazareank‘ (Papers about Armenian Lord of Lords) [Arm. orig., Dop‘eank‘ and Melik‘-Shaznazareank‘ (Niwt‘er hay melik‘ut‘ean masin)], Issue 2, Ejmiatsin, 1914, p. 104.

[19] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 2. 19.

[20] Ibid.

[21] “Акты, собранные Кавказской Археографической комиссией” (hereafter, АКАК), Тифлис, 1868г., т. V, № 34; Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 2. 14.

[22] “СИОФКИС”, с. 29-35.

[23] С. Эсадзе, “Историческая записка об управлении Кавказом”, т. 1, Тифлис, 1907г., с. 65.

[24] Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 387-399.

[25] R. H. Hovhannisyan, Republic of Armenia [Arm. orig., Hayastani Hanrapetut‘yun] (hereafter, RA), vol.1, Erevan 2005, pp. 34-35; S. Vrats‘yan, Republic of Armenia [Arm. orig., Hayastani Hanrapetut‘yun] (hereafter, RA), Erevan, 1998, p. 161; Борян Г.А., “Армения, международная дипломатия и СССР”, т. 1, Москва-Ленинград. 1928г.

[26] Vrats‘yan, RA, pp. 501-502; 534-535; Khurshudyan, ibid., pp. 304-305; T. Sahakyan, Discreditable Treaties [Arm. orig., Ts‘avali paymanagrer] (hereafter, Discreditable], Erevan, pp. 342-343.

[27] A. Ter-Hakobyan, The Last Disaster of Armenia [Arm. orig., Hayastani verjin aghetě], Constantiople,1921, pp. 124-125; Khurshudyan, ibid., p. 306; Sahakyan, pp. 343; 347.

[28] Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 398-399.

[29] Ibid., p. 399.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Great October Socialist Revolution, and the Establishment of the Soviet Rule in Armenia [Arm. orig., Hoktemberyan Sots‘ialistakan Mets‘ Revoluts‘ian ew Sovetakan ishkhanakan hastatumě Hayastanum], pp. 511; 513-514.

[33] Jon Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties of International Diplomacy and Soviet Foreign Policy in 1828-1923 [Arm. orig., Hayastaně mijazgayin divanagitut‘yan ew sovetakan artak‘in k‘aghak‘anut‘yan p‘astat‘ght‘erum, 1828-1923], (hereafter, Armenia in the Treaties], Erevan, 1972, pp. 513-513.

[34] ДВП СССР, т. 4, с. 420-429; Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties, pp. 517-527.

[35] Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties, p. 507.

[36] Ibid., p. 527.

[37] Справка “Нахичеванская АССР в Советско-турецких договорах” (подготовленная МИД СССР для ЦК КПСС 31 мая 1966г., СССР, МИД СССР, ОСВ, 31 мая 1966г., № 344 /ОСВ).

[38] Ibid.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Leo, Collection, vol. 1, pp. 158-159; 394-395; 504-505; 510; Idem, vol. 5, pp. 57-60; 66-71; 72-87; Ayvazyan, Nakhichevani, p.17; A. Ghanalanyan, Medieval Tales [Arm. orig., Avandapatum], Erevan, 1969, p. 12; 37.

[42] Ayvazyan, Nakhichevani, pp. 10-15.

[43] Ibid., pp. 42-43.

[44] Ibid., p. 27.

[45] Ibid., pp. 24-25.

[46] Ibid., pp. 54-55.

[47] Ibid., pp. 60-61.

[48] Ibid., pp. 58-59.

[49] Ibid., p. 58.

[50] Ayvazyan, Nakhichevani (fully); Idem., Julfa Arm. orig., Julfa.

[51] Ayvazyan, Nakhichevani, pp. 21; 35; 63; 66; 68.

[52] Н.Марр, “Армянская культура, её корни и доисторические связы”, с. 68; T. Gh. Sahakyan, Of Great Armenia [Mets‘ Hayastani…], p. 175.

[53] Ayvazyan, Julfa, p. 34; Ibid., Nakhichevani, p. 41; Gh. Alishan, Sisiakan [Arm. orig., Sisiakan], Venice, 1893, p. 424.

[54] “The ceasefire agreement with Azerbaijan comes with great risks for Armenia” (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/nov/19/ceasefire-agrement-azerbaijan-great-risks-armenia). The Guardian, November 19, 2020.

[55] Ayvazyan, Nakhichevani, pp. 78-94.

[56] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 1. 309-316.

[57] Ibid., p. 419.

[58] Ibid., pp. 236-238.

[59] Ibid., 416; 508.

[60] Ibid., pp. 247; 248.

[61] Ibid., pp. 272, 274.

[62] Ibid., pp. 417-419; 432; 471.

[63] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 2. 422-427.

[64] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 1. 247.

[65] Ayvazyan, Julfa, pp. 15-16.

[66] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 2.468-469; 553.

[67] Ibid., pp. 175; 178; 210-211; 523-524.

[68] Ibid., pp. 523; 524; Idem., vol. 2, 1. 363-368; 373; 432.

[69] Leo, Collection, vol. 3, 2. 232.

[70] Ibid., p. 547.

[71] Ibid., pp. 559; 560.

[72] Idem., vol. 3, 1. 455.

[73] Ibid., p. 503.

[74] Ibid., p. 503.

[75] Ibid., pp. 448; 450; 460.

[76] Ibid., pp. 448; 450; 460; 473.

[77] Ibid., pp. 464; 467; 555-556.

[78] T. Sahakyan, Discreditable, pp. 172-177; G. Nzhdeh, Selected Studies [Arm. orig., Hatěntir], Erevan, 2—1, pp. 3-5; V. Gēorgean, The Heroic Battle of the Mountainous Armenia (1918-1921) [Lernahayastani herosamartě (1918-1921)], Erevan, 1991, pp. 11-14; 41.

[79] Leo, Collection, vol. 4, p. 426-427; Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 415-416; Г.Г.Саркисян, “Население Восточной Армении в XIX начале XX в.”, Ереван, 2002г., с. 61-78; Khojabekyan, Reproduction and Migrations of the Armenian Population in the 19th -20th Centuries and at the Beginning of the 21th Century [Arm. orig., Hayastani bnakch‘ut‘yan verartadrut‘yuně ew teghasharzherě XIX-XX darerum ew XXI dari shemin], Erevan, 2002, pp. 25-30; History 5. 171; 175; “Азерб. Аргументы …”, с. 49.

[80] Leo, Collection, vol. 4, p. 426.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Ibid., p. 427.

[83] Ibid.

[84] Hakobyan, Contour Lines, p. 26; Khojabekyan, ibid., p. 30 (Table 1); A. Erits‘yan, The Catholicoi of All Armenians and Haik‘ of Caucasia of the 19th Century [Arm. orig., Amenayn hayots‘ kat‘oghikosut‘yuně ew Kovkasi Haykě‘ XI darum], Tiflis, 1894, vol. 1, p. 383; “Азерб. Аргументы …”, с. 49; Г.Г.Саркисян, ibid., p. 62; Шопен, ibid., pp. 545-642; 599-642; RA National Governmental Archive (hereafter, RA NGA), fund 94, catalogue 1, case 435, pp. 85-86; Ibid; Fund 90, catalogue 1, case 48, p. 398; АКАК, т. II, с. 276, 584-585; History 5. 171; 175; ”Известия штаба Кавказского военного округа”, № 37, Тифлис, 1914г., с. 21-37.

[85] Шопен, ibid., pp. 599-642; բ) “Азерб. Аргументы …”, с. 49.

[86] Шопен, ibid., pp. 545-642; Саркисян, ibid., p. 63; Erits‘yan, ibid., p. 337.

[87] Саркисян, ibid., pp. 71-72 (Table 3).

[88] Articles 41, 61, 78, 117, 151-152 of the constitution of Azerbaijan SSR, on March 14, 1937; В. Тархов, “Занятие г.Нахичевани и первая стреча Красной Армии с войсками Кемаль Паши” (“Военный вестник”, 15.IV.1922г., № 8, с. 33-35).

[89] Саркисян, ibid., p. 53; Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926г., т. XIV, ЗСФСР, М., 1929г., Армянская ССР, с. 8; “Военно-статистическое обозрение Российской империи” (hereafter, ВСОРИ), СПб, 1856г., т. 16, ч. 6, с. 150; Г.Ванциан, “Армянские цыгане” (“Сборник материалов для описания местностей и племен Кавказа”, (hereafter, СМОМПК), 1901г., СПб, вып. 29, отд. 1, с. 45; Г.Ф.Чурсин, “Население Закавказья” (в книге: “Закавказье, статистико-экономический сборник), Тифлис, 1925г., с. 157.

[90] Саркисян, ibid., pp. 71-72.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Ibid.

[93] Ibid.

[94] Ibid.

[95] Ibid.

[96] Ibid.

[97] Ibid.

[98] Ibid.

[99] Ibid.

[100] Ibid.

[101] Ibid.

[102] Ibid.

[103] Саркисян, ibid., p. 81 (Table 5); “Обозрение Российских владений за Кавказом в статистическoм, этнографическом, топографическом и финансовом отношениях”, СПб, 1836г., ч. 1-4, с. 365; “Обозрение Эриванской провинции” (журнал Министерства внутренных дел-жМВД), Эривань, 1831г., кн. 2, с. 91-106; “Обозрение Нахичеванской провинции – жМВД, Эривань, 1831г., кн. 5, с. 69-70.

[104] Саркисян, ibid., p. 83.

[105] Ibid., p. 84, see Шопен, Table 6.

[106] Ibid.

[107] Ibid.

[108] Khojabekyan, ibid., p. 58 (Table 4); Шопен, ibid., p. 642; ibid., p. 642; Всеобщая перепись населения Российской империи 1897г.”, т. 1, ч. 71, 1905г., с. 1, т. 1, ч. 64, тетрадь-1, 1900, с. 1; “Кавказский календарь на 1914г.”, Тифлис, 1913г., с. 122-135.

[109] Khojabekyan, ibid., p. 117 (Table 23); “Первая Всероссийская общая перепись населения 1897г.” (Table 22); “Кавказский календарь на 1914г.”, Тифлис, с. 110-137.

[110] Khojabekyan, ibid., p. 123 (Table 26); “Первая Всероссийская общая перепись населения” (Table 22); “Кавказский календарь на 1915г.”, Тифлис, 1914г., с. 218-256; “Кавказский календарь на 1917г.”, Тифлис, с. 180-221.

[111] “Первая Всероссийская общая перепись населения” (“Памятная … на 1902г.”), с. 52.

[112] Шопен, ibid., pp. 638-639.

[113] Шопен, ibid., pp. 635-642; “Первая Всероссийская общая перепись населения …”, с. 52-55.

[114] “Первая Всероссийская …” (“Эриванская губерня”), с. 52-55; “Кавказский календарь на 1917г.”, Тифлис, с. 215-221; “Численность и население СССР”, М., 1984г., с. 126.

[115] Articles 41, 61, 78, 117, 151-152 of the constitution of Azerbaijan SSR, on March 14, 1937.

[116] ДВП СССР, т. 3, с. 597-604.

[117] ДВП СССР, т. 3, с. 420-429.

[118] “Первая Всероссийская общая перепись населения…” (“Эриванская губерня”), с. 52-55; “Кавказский календарь на 1917г.”, Тифлис, с. 216-221.

[119] “Всесоюзная перепись населения 17 декабря 1926г.” (Краткие сводки), вып. IV, Mосква, с. 127-128.

[120] RA NGA, fund 130, catalogue 6, case 197.

[121] RA NGA, fund 126, catalogue 42, case 8, p.13.

[122] Ibid.

[123] RA NGA, fund 123, catalogue 42, case 8, p. 50; RA NGA, fund 130, catalogue 6, case 197, p. 52; RA NGA, fund 130, catalogue 6, case 197, p. 53.

[124] “Заря Востока”, 12.03.1925г.

[125] RA NGA, fund 130, catalogue 6, case 197, pp. 27; 66; 53; 67.

[126] Ibid., pp. 68; 10.

[127] Ibid., p. 67.

[128] RA NGA, Fund 130, catalogue 6, case 197, pp. 72; 73; 99.

[129] “Бакинский рабочий”, 06.05.1925г.

[130] RA NGA, fund 130, catalogue 6, case 197, p. 79.

[131] Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926г. (Национальный состав населения по регионам республик СССР).

[132] Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939г. (Распределение городского и сельского населения областей союзных республик по национальности и полу).

[133] Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959г. (Городское и селское население областей республика СССР (кроме РСФС) по полу и национальности).

[134] Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970г. (Городское и селское население областей республика СССР (кроме РСФС) по полу и национальности).

[135] Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979г. Городское и селское население областей республика СССР (кроме РСФС) по полу и национальности).

[136] Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989г. (Распределение городского и сельского населения областей республик СССР по полу и национальности).

[137] Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 1999 (http://pop-stat.mashke.opg/azerbaijan-ethnic1999.htm ) (рус.), pop-start.mashke.org; Territories, number and density of population by economic and administrative regions of Republic of Azerbaijan, 27. XII.2016.

[138] Official portal of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic: Cities and regions (http://www.nakhichevan.az/portal-en/seh-ray-htm ) Arcuved (https://web.archive.org/web/20140519040027/http://www.nakhichevan.az/portal-en/seh-ray.htm) May 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.

[139] Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 2009 (http://pop-stat.mashke.opg/azerbaijan-ethnic2009.htm ) (рус.), pop-start.mashke.org.

[140] The data of December 27, 2016, of central statistical administration of Republic of Azerbaijan.

[141] https://www.sat.gov.az/source/demography/ap/.

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