With the fall of central power in the Akkadian Empire, northern Babylonia was occupied by mountaineers called the Gutians. Those ferocious people are described as disgusting and frightening in various notes.
However, Gutians probably did not have much influence in southern Babylonia, which predominantly remained Sumerian both in terms of population and culture. Moreover, the cities of this region started to regain their positions.
During the reign of the Akkadian dynasty, the city of Akkad was the main port of the country, but after its destruction by the Gutians, the trade and wealth started to leave it through the Persian Gulf and move towards southern cities.
One of the most developed cities of the time was Lagash during the reign of Gudea. The city is quite well-studied.
The greatest achievement of Gudea (from his own point of view) was the renovation of the temple, in regard to which he left a considerable number of notes in the form of inscriptions. Those inscriptions give us valuable details about the international trade of that time.
According to them, Gudea imported cedar beams from the Cedar Mountain (Lebanon). Bitumen (asphalt) and gypsum were brought by water from the mountains of Madga (Kirkuk?). Golden sand was brought to the ruler of the city from the Land of Gold (Armenia), and precious carnelian came from Meluhha (the valley of the Indus River?).
H. Suggs. Babylon and Assyria. Life, religion, culture