Much more information is known about Armenian next old fixed calendar, called “Hayots Boun Tomar” (HBT) – Armenian Basic Calendar (ABC) started in 2492 BC by order of Armenian King Hayk (about 24932444 BC, P.H.), who had the title “Kesar”, Le. “Half AR”, “Half Sun”, “Half God”, because Armenian King was in the same time the Main Patriarch, or “Son of Sun” and representative of the Main God – Father AR on the Earth.
The word ”kes” in Armenian means “half’, so Kesar was “Half God”. The word “Kesar” later over passed to Europe via Greece and was used as “Caesar” (in Rome and Byzantium), “Caeser” (in Germany), “Czar” or “Tsar” (in Russia), etc., but already in the meaning of “emperor”. As it was told by Movses Khorenatsi, Armenian famous historian of V century AD, the Nakharar (King) Hayk worsted the Babylon army which came to occupy Armenia, killed the Babylonian king Bel (Nemrod) in battle and ordered to celebrate this day every year and to rename the months of year after the names of His sons and daughters.
The date 2492 BC was recovered by Armenian historian of XIX century AD Ghevond Alishan. It was known, that New Year (Navasard 1) in 428 AD by “movable” ASC coincided with August 23 by Julian (Hulian) Calendar (or with August 11 of present calendar). Using this fact and “Armenian Cycle” of 1460 years he calculated that 1460 – 428 AD =1032BC+1460 = 2492 BC. As G.Alishan wrote, the same figure of 2492 BC is shown by old authors Aphriakanos and Yevsebios as the date of Bel’s death.
Armenian Basic Calendar (HBT, ABC) consists of 12 months 30 days each, so 360 days plus 5 (or 6 once per every four years in fixed HBT) Additional days (the New Year celebrations). Each month and each day of month, as well as each of 24 hours of day have their own names – Armenian words. Armenian scientist of VII century AD Anania Shirakatsi tells these names . I have presented here the names of months of HBT and corresponding dates of present calendar:
Additional (Avelyats) 5 days were named by names of 5 known at that time planets. In ”fixed” BBT one more day (once per 4 years) ofleap year was added to month Mehekan. The names of days of month were the Armenian names connected with the names of sacramental mountains, heathen temples and Gods:
The beginning of day was 6 o’clock of morning (Solar time, of course). The names of hours of day were also Armenian words:
The seven-day week Belt-Calendar of IT millennium BC was found near town Sanahin in Armenia. The days on this Belt-Calendar are called by names of Sun, Moon and Armenian old names of five planets.
It is interesting that first two present English names of week-days are directly connected with Armenian names of the Sun and Moon, and Saturday is connected with Saturn. HBT is sometimes used in Armenia until now. Many people also celebrate the old New Year (August 11). Nobody annulled the king Hayk’s order of 2492 BC.
Old Egyptian Calendar (taken from HBT in ITI millennium BC) was like HBT, but had not names for days of month. Besides HBT in Armennia other calendars were also in use after Christianity adopting, as Hayots Mets Thvakan (HMT, Armenian Great Date) began from July 11 of 552 AD, Ecclesiastical Calendar, “fixed” calendar of Armenian scientist Hovanes Imastaser, began from 1085 AD, with the New Year (Navasard 1) at August 11 of Julian calendar.
HBT is the oldest, regular and exact Calendar in the VVorld. In August 11, 2008 it will be completed 4500 years of HBT. Let us hope this fact will be marked in many countries by the help of International Organisations.
• It were renamed 10 names of months, so 2 names retained their old names. Probably King Hayk had only 10 children.
An extract from the book “Armenians and Ancient Armenia” by Paris Heoruni.