Events and Facts from the Russo-Turkish Moscow Treaty of 1921

Events and Facts

On March 16, 1921, the Moscow Treaty was concluded between the nationalist government of Turkey and Bolshevik Russia. One of the results of this treaty would become the division of Armenia between Russia and Turkey.

American politician, US ambassador to Germany in 1913-1917, and Democrat James Gerald (1867-1951) wrote:

“On March 16, 1921, the Bolsheviks concluded an agreement with Kemal, according to which they gave part of the Republic of Armenia to Turkey. Two other areas (Sharur and Nakhichevan) were passed to Azerbaijan. And in the remaining area, the label “Soviet Armenia” was hung, indicating its attachment to Russia.”

Bekir Sami Bey, the first foreign minister of Turkey in 1920-1921, wrote:

“We consider Lenin an amiable and open person. He said that he must make an advantageous decree for us.”

Turkish General and politician Kâzım Karabekir wrote:

“If it were not for the support of the Russians, we would not be able to bring the Armenians to their knees and in a few years the Greeks. Armenia was the enemy for Ankara and Moscow and should have disappeared as a state. Our Russian allies reacted with understanding to our intention to attack Armenia.”

This photo shows Armenian children orphaned during the Armenian Genocide of 1915. They would be drafted into the Turkish army under the command of Kâzım Karabekir to participate in the war against Armenia. The photo was taken in 1919 during the visit of the American delegation led by General James Harrod to Turkey and Armenia.

Arshaluis Zurabyan

James Gerald (1867 – 1951) US Ambassador to Germany in 1913-1917



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